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With thr Compliments of 




Its Buildings and Gardens 



Its Build i n g s 
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THE VALUE of history lies in the perspective it gives us as we take up the 
problems of the present. Lawrence Koc.her and Howard Dearstyne, by 
making us see here the intimate daily family life of eighteenth-century Wil- 
liamsburg and the society of which it was a part, help us even more to see 
ourselves and our own time in sharper focus. 

And insight, above everything else, is the purpose of Colonial Williamsburg 
one-time capital of the great and powerful Virginia colony and the only capi- 
tal of our colonial period which, after more than a century of sleep, coidd be 
awakened and reconstructed in its original form. 

We hope that millions of Americans will find time and opportunity to visit 
Colonial Williamsburg in order that they may have the experience of stepping 
out of the present and losing themselves temporarily in the significant past. 
There is no better way for the modern American, man, woman, or child, to get 
a real emotional sense of the depth of his roots and the meaning of our nation's 

Those who read this book like those who come to Colonial Williamsburg 
are urged to consider it. only a foundation. The building of a free world can 


never be finished. We in our time must make our contribution. Colonial Wil- 
liamsburg lives today to help all of us to feel strongly our heritage of liberty in 
order that we may build a better America and a better world in the twentieth 

Colonial Williamsburg reminds us that the foundation of modern America 
is spiritual a faith which began to lake shape in Williamsburg and to be ex- 
pressed there by some of the greatest of our forefathers. Nowhere else in co- 
lonial America was the democratic faith on which our nation has been built 
more eloquently expix\ssed. 

I think we cannot: drink too deeply at this spring of our history. I think the 
authors in this book have helped you and me immeasurably to see the past so 
that we may understand and deal more effectively with the present. 


Office of I lie Preside tit 
dolouial IVilliamsbnrg 

The bell of Brttton Church 
rang out in iy(i6 to announce 
the repeal of the Stamp Act. 
Ten years later, on May 15, 
1776* it pealed again to pro- 
claim Virginia's separation from 
England, six \veeks before the 
independence of all the colonies 
was sounded by Philadelphia's 
Liberty Bell. 








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IX. INDKX i()1 


The Virginia Planters' Capital 

"The moral influence of the large plantation 
. . . fostered habits of self-reliance in individual 
men; it assisted in promoting an intense love 
of liberty; it strengthened the ties of family and 
kinship at the very time that it cultivated the 
spirit of general hospitality." Bruce 

WHKN THK FIRST settlers ' of Virginia landed at 
Jamestown, they found themselves in a most 
unfriendly environment; they were confronted by a 
mysterious wilderness, unfamiliar flora and fauna, and 
a strange and hostile race of men. In their struggle for 
survival in this New World, these early colonists had 
little opportunity to develop architecture of lasting 
significance. There was, however, the immediate need 
lor shelter and protection. Carpenters and brick- 
layers were put to work, and houses soon sprang up 
within a wooden stockade. These first shelters were 
roughhewn; one seventeenth-century writer consid- 
ered them as devoid of architectural beauty as a 
barn, lacking both chimneys and partitions. Still later, 
even homes of prominent planters were often de- 
scribed as "simple and plain." 

On the other hand, structures of c considerable archi- 
tectural pretension were soon planned along the 
James and York rivers. In Suny County, for example, 
the country seat known as Bacon's Castle was under 
construction within a half century of the landing at 
Jamestown. This Jacobean building, although small 
compared with English mansions, has an elaboration 
of detail in its doorways, mantels, and clustered chim- 
neys that can be associated only with the "designed" 
house. Similar architectural ambitions were evident 
in churches such as St. Luke's near Smithfield, the 
church at Jamestown, and the early buttressed church 
at Middle Plantation. And, within one hundred years 
of Jamestown's founding, the notable public build- 
ings of Williamslmrg the Wren Building at the 

College of William and Mary, the Capitol, and the 
Governor's Palace were either built or under con- 



In colonial Virginia, architecture was developed to 
meet the requirements and tastes of a plantation 
society, a society in which social prestige and political 
power depended primarily on tobacco, "the Indian 
weed" which Joluf Rolfe had first learned to cure. 
After the land was safe from Indian attack, and the 
woodlands sufficiently cleared, the broad fertile Tide- 
water was dotted with plantations, large and small, 
with their mansions and outbuildings. The broad- 
leafed plant sustained a planter aristocracy which 
prided itself on its great estates, such as Westover, 
Berkeley, Carter's Grove, Tuckahoe, Brandon, Strat- 
ford, and Shirley. 

Except for manufactured goods and luxuries, which 
were imported from England, the planter became 
largely self-suflicient. The wealthy planter was master 
of a small village. The plantation house, with its 
numerous dependent buildings, was an expression 
of this remarkable community. At an appropriate 
distance from the mansion were the kitchen, smoke- 
house, dairy, storehouse, washhouse, coach house, 
and stable. There might even be a schoolhouse. Near 
the tobacco fields were the rude slave quarters. Tim- 
ber for building was cut from the planter's own 
land and sawed at his own mill. Brick used in his man- 
sion was molded, and burned in a kiln, from clay dug 


Loading tobacco ships on the James. Tobacco "was largely instrumental in moulding the social 
classes and political structure of the Colony. ... It even exerted a powerful influence upon 
religion and morals." Wertenbaker. 

on his own plantation. Hogsheads in which tobacco 
was shipped were made in his cooper's shop. Shoes 
were fashioned in his own shoemaker's shop, out of 
leather provided by his tannery. At the smithy, the 
plantation's blacksmiths hammered out hardware, 
shod horses, and repaired farm implements and 

The plantation house was patterned after English 
mansions, but was adapted to meet the needs of plan- 
tation life. Spacious, high-ccilingcd rooms offered 
comfort in summer heat and were well suited for 
entertainment; for, if plantation life imposed its 
burden of caves, it also had its amenities. There was 

a constant interchange of visits among the plantations, 
which were rarely without guests. Philip Eithian, in 
1 77-5 tutor at Nomini Hall, the Westmoreland County 
home of Councilor Robert Carter, makes numerous 
references to balls, barbecues, billiards, card games, 
and other social events. Children of the planters 
acquired social graces early, and were usually given 
dancing lessons; Fithian, observing one lesson con- 
ducted by an exacting tutor, noted in his diary: 
"There were several Minuets danced with great ease 
and propriety; after which the whole company Joined 
in country-dances, and it was indeed beautiful to 
admiration, to see such a number of young persons, 


set off by dress to the best Advantage, moving easily, 
to the sound of well performed Music." 


Williamsburg- itself was the political and social 
metropolis of this plantation gentry, and reflects this 
role in its architectural development. Because of the 
predominantly agricultural character of the colony, 
Williamsburg, unlike such populous trading marts as 
Boston, New York, or Philadelphia, resembled "a 
good Country Town in England"; its population 
(white and Negro included) never exceeded two thou- 
sand. Yet. it served as the seat of government and as 
the cultural center for one of Britain's largest and 
most powerful colonies; its si/.e belies its importance 
in shaping the American past. Its political significance 
is intimated in the Capitol; its prestige for the Crown 
in the Governor's Palace; its cultural role in Bruicm 
Church and the Wren Building of the College of 
William and Mary. 

The historical and architectural significance of 
Williamsburg is largely confined to its tenure as capi- 
tal of Virginia, dining the years i (M)<) to 1780. The 
town was settled as Middle Plantation in i(i^, as an 
outpost against Indian attack. In if><)<), the capital was 
removed from [amestown to this site, and the town 
was renamed Williamsburg, in honor of King Wil- 
liam III. In 1780, during a critical 
stage of the Revolutionary War, the 
capital was moved to Richmond, 
which was considered "more safe 
and central than any other town 
situated on navigable water." Its 
mission fulfilled, Willkimsbuig fell 
into a decline. Its historic: impor- 
tance was to lie buried for a century 
and a hall. 

Despite the care with which co- 
lonial Williamsburg has been re- 
created, it is often difficult for the 
modern-day visitor to visuali/e the 

town exactly as it was in the eighteenth century. To 
know its buildings and gardens it is also necessary to 
understand something of its political masters, mer- 
chants and craftsmen, and cultural and religious 
leaders. Without, this understanding, the city as 
restored today is no more than a museum piece. Wil- 
liamsburg in the past was a living town, and it is 
only through constant awareness of those who made 
it famous that the significance of eighteenth-century 
Virginia and its small but important capital can be 


For most of the year, Williamsburg was a small 
college town and market place, but twice annually, 
during "publick times," the planters' capital sprang 
to life. It was then that the legislature usually met, 
and the courts were in session. A crowded social and 
political calendar attracted men of every pocketbook 
and profession from all parts of the colony. The popu- 
lation of the town doubled almost overnight, and 
every available inn, tavern, and private house was 
packed to overflowing. On some occasions, the rooms 
were insufficient to accommodate the visitors; at such 
taverns ns the Raleigh, guests might be awakened after 
only a few hours of sleep to make way for others. 

The most prominent persons of the colony stopped 


Stratford, a plantation house little 
changed since it was built, 1725-30. 
Here was born one of Virginia's most 
famous sons, Robert E. Lee. 

: () L ONI A L W I L L I A M S B U R G 

in Williainsburg at these times; elegant balls, ban- 
quets, lawn fetes, and displays of fireworks were given 
in their honor. Governor Spotsvvood is known to have 
entertained as many as two hundred guests on an 
official occasion at the Palace, and at such times the 
Raleigh Tavern was often thrown open by order of 
the governor for the entertainment of people of 

Horse races and fairs enlivened the occasion. Like 
county fairs of today, fairs at Williainsburg in the 
eighteenth century both stimulated trade and served 
as amusement for the people. A notice appearing in 
the Virginia Gazette of December 7, 1739, reveals 
their nature and objectives: 

\Vm KI AS TWO i AIRS art 1 appointed to be held in this 
City . . . out of a laudable Design to encourage the 
Trade thereof, and to be a Means of promoting a general 
Commerce or Traffic k among Persons that want to buy 
or sell, either the Product or Manufactures of the Coun- 
try. ... 

IT is therej ore Agreed upon, and Ordered, Tim the 
following . . . shall be given as llounties. . . . 

To tfie Person that brings most Horses to the said FAIR, 
and there offers them to Publick Sale ... a Pistole. . . . 

To the Person that brings most Cows, Steers, or other 
horned Cattle . . . a Pistole shall be given. . . . 

AND for the Entertainment and Diversion ol all Gentle- 
men and others, that shall resort thereto, the following 
PRI/F.S are given to be contended for . . . v/z. 

A good Hat to be Cudgel I'd for. . . . 

A Saddle of 40 .s\ Value, to be run for, once round the 
Mile Course, adjacent to this City. . . . 

A Pair oi Silver Buckles, Value 20 5. to be run for by 
Men, from the College to the Capitol. . . . 

A Pair of Pumps to be danc'd for by Men. 

A handsome Firelock to be exercis'd for. . . . 

A Pig, with his Tail soap'd, to be run after. . . . 



lic times to display the finest goods produced in the 
colony and articles "after the newest fashion" im- 
ported from England. The latest creations in clothing 
and household furnishings often appeared in Wil- 
liamsburg sooner than in out-of-the-way towns in 
England; planters had the latest London modes to 
choose from, and the shops did a thriving business. 
Although never an important manufacturing 
city, Williamsburg at one time or another during 
the colonial period did produce furniture, candles, 




HAS j 

Williainsburg was not a large trading center, but 
its shopkeepers and craftsmen made the most of pub- 

rut c n tt ft c , WfttiAMtatifto, 

ImpoftH frwn n4r * fntttl tfTartmrnt of P L A T E 
fti JtWftLLlRYi to h.i lifcil on h*4 .11 forti of 
made GOLD art SltVKRWOKK, hi<h h wUl foil 
I fowet rat lhan lul ..... OM I L V K, K taken in riclungc for nr 
wotki at 7 t*r witxt and COM) at 5). $*. He report his own 
work, $hai faili I* ftatoatk tbM without any cspcittc i the n*. 
thrfrr. 4 

coaches, saddles and harness, jewelry, shoes, hosiery, 
and wigs. For the most part, these articles were pur- 
chased by townspeople. In its early days, particularly, 
Williainsburg was almost completely dependent on 
England for manufactured articles; the extent of this 
dependence, even as late as 1752, is suggested by a 
notice in the Virginia Gazette announcing the arrival 
of "A FRKSII Cargoe of live human Hairs, all ready 
cuiTd and well prepared by the best 1 lands in Lon- 
don." With the passage of the Stamp Act and other 
restrictive measures, however, relations with England 
became more and more strained, imports declined, 
and home crafts and manufactures received increasing 
support and encouragement. 

Typical of the response to such measures is a notice 
which appeared in the Gazette in tyficj requesting 
ladies and gentlemen to turn in their old gold and 
silver to fames (ieddy, goldsmith, "[who], as he has 
not imported any jewellery this season . . . flatters him- 
self he will meet with encouragement. A Committee 
for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures 
offered prizes in 1765 to persons producing the most 
well-dressed hemp. At Capitol Landing, a mile from 
town, a factory was established which announced that 
it was prepared to turn out cloth as good as could be 
woven in England. The introduction of the mulberry 

Opposite, Barber and Wigmaker's Shop. 


tree to Virginia in the hope of establishing a silk 
industry did not meet with the success expected, al- 
though a notice in the Gazette in 1775 reported that 
a certain Mr. Estave collected enough cocoons in a 
single year to produce one hundred pounds of silk 
fit for manufacture. 

No discussion of trades and crafts in Williamsburg 
would be complete which failed to mention William 
Parks and printing. Parks opened an office on Duke of 
Gloucester Street about 1730 and printed and sold 
many books, including William Stith's The History 






Infcrib'd to the Honourable 


His Majefty's Lieutenant-Governor, and Commander in 
Chief of the Colony of VI RG 

Pkttt font omncf JLibri) plena faf'tcntum 

plena Excmfloruw vetuftas ; qua jacewit in Tencbrjf 
ftifi Ltterarum Lumen acccdcrct. 

Cic, Orat. pro Arch la. 

Printed by WIL&IAK PA* M,DCC,XXX. 

One of the first examples of printing in Virginia, this 
title page was published in 1730 by William Parks, 
founder of the Virginia Gazette. It was the earliest 
American appreciation of the press and was "occa- 
sion'd by the setting up a Printing-Press in Williams- 

of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia, The 
Whole Body of the Laws of Virginia, The Poor 
Planter's Physician, Poems by a Gentleman of Vir- 
ginia, and numerous other publications concerning 
religion, music, school subjects, and military tactics. 
Through his office and those of his successors, books 
and current London magazines were imported and 
sold. The first number of the Virginia Gazette, oldest 
newspaper in the colony, was issued by Parks in 1736. 
Thirteen years later, with the aid of Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Parks established a paper mill cm the outskirts of 
Williamsburg, advertising that he desired "all Persons 
to save their old Linen Rags, for making Paper," add- 
ing that "As this is the first Mill of the Kind, that 
ever was erected in this Colony, and has cost a very 
considerable Sum of Money," he hoped "to meet 
with Encouragement suitable to so useful an Under- 
taking." Parks, who was a fine typographer and a 
skillful editor, has justly been called a dean among 
early American printers, and his influence on the cul- 
ture of the city and colony was extensive. 


The prescm e in the town of the College of William 
and Mary, founded in 1693 and, after Harvard, the 
oldest college in the colonies, helped make Williams- 
burg the cultural center of Virginia. The relationship 
between the College and the colonial government was 
close; William and Alary was actually represented in 
the House of Burgesses, the only college in the colo- 
nies enjoying such a privilege. Students included 
Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, James Mon- 
roe, John Tyler, John Marshall, Edmund Randolph, 
and others influential in America's formative years. 
Among distinguished faculty members was George 
Wythe, tutor of Jefferson and founder of the first 
course in law at an American college. 

The site of the College was ideal. The act of 1699, 
directing the development of Williamsburg, had 
reflected that "it will prove highly advantageous and 
bcneficiall to his Majesty's Royall Colledge of William 
R: Mary to have the conveniences, of a towne near 
the same." Located in the center of the social, cul- 
tural, and political life of the colony, the College 
could offer students first-hand study of colonial society 
and government. Perhaps the largest debt owed to one 
man by the young College was due the Reverend 
James Blair, energetic and fiery Scottish clergyman 

Household utensils in the Palace Kitchen. We note *vith admiration the grace ana endurance 
of such homely objects as ladles, draining and skimming spoons, long-handled fireplace forks, 
lanterns, and foot warmers. 

C O L N I A L W I L L 1 A M S B U R G 

who fought hard tor its inception arid became its 
first president. A notice in the London Post Hoy in 
1706 shows the rapidly growing reputation of the 
College: "Some . . . from Virginia tell us that the 
College which had been lately founded there ... is 
so crowded with Students, that they begin to think of 
enlarging the College, for it seems divers from Pen- 
silvania, Maryland, and Carolina send their Sons 
thither to be educated." 

Virginia Avas fortunate in having a number of royal 
governors who were men of learning and who sup- 
ported and encouraged the work of the College and 
the cultural life of Williamsburg. Among these were 
Governor Fauquicr, greatly admired by Thomas 
fclferson, and Lord Botetourt, in whose honor the 
Botetourt medals for scholarship have been awarded 
by the College continuously since that time. Even 
Governor Dunmore, later the object of the colonists' 
suspicion and hatred, was a sponsor of the Society 
for the Advancement of Useful Knowledge (1773), 
through which the founders hoped "to direct the 

Attention of their Countrymen to the Study of Nature, 
with a View of multiplying the Advantages that may 
result from this Source of Improvement. ... It is 
therefore the Intention of this Society to rescue from 
Oblivion every useful Essay." 

Eighteenth-century Virginians loved and appre- 
ciated music; planters' children were expected to learn 
to sing or play some instrument. Many music teachers 
gave lessons in the town and toured the plantations 
to instruct in the violin, harpsichord, and pianoforte. 
Outstanding among these was Cuthbert Ogle, whose 
inventory of effects lists a fine collection of sonatas 
and concertos by English composers and many books 
of Handel's songs and oratorios. Psalmody was a part 
of services at Bruton ('lunch. Fiddling contests were 
events at. every fair, and home concerts were frequent. 
Jefferson joined with Governor Fauquier and others 
in impromptu chamber musicalcs at the Palace. 
Theater patrons were often entertained between acts 
by performers on French horns, trumpets, and other 

"The [Wren] Building is beautiful and commodious, being first modelled by 
Sir Christopher Wren, adapted to the Nature of die Country by the Gentlemen 
there. . . ." Hugh Jones, 1724. 



Between 1716 and 1718 William Levingston erected 
the first theater in America on the east side of the 
Palace Green, proposing to present in this "good Sub- 
stantial house commodious for Acting" comedies, 
"drolls/ 1 and other kinds of stage plays. Many of the 
productions were amateur. The Virginia Gazette, for 
example, announced in 1736 the performance there 
of The Tragedy of Cato by the ''young Gentlemen of 
the College" and other plays by the "Gentlemen and 
Ladies of this Country." 

Although this pioneer venture at first, met with 
hearty approval, and the playhouse was filled night 
alter night, it was forced to close two decades later 
for financial reasons. A second playhouse was erected 
in 1751 near the Capitol. Here Lewis Hallam and his 
company from London made their American debut 
in 'I he Merchant of Venice. Hallam announced that 
he had brought with him "Scenes, Cloaths and Deco- 
rations . . . all entirely new, extremely rich . . . 
excel I'd by none in Beauty and F.legance, so that the 
Ladies and Gentlemen may depend on being enter- 

Pulpit of Bruton Church. According to an early 
writer, Hrutoii was "adorned as the best Churches 
in London." 

tain'd in as polite a Manner as at the Theatres in 
London" Patrons of Hallam 's theater included many 
prominent colonists. George Washington was an 
enthusiastic playgoer, noting in his diary that he 

The Reverend Mr. George Wh icefield, im- 
petuous Anglican priest who with the Wesleys 
began the Methodist movement, "arrived in 
December, 1739, at Williamsburg, and preached 
there in Bruton Church, producing great 
excitement." Portrait by John Wollastoii. 

"Dined at the President's and went to the Play" or 
that he "Reach'd Williamsburg before Dinner, and 
went to the Play in the Afternoon." 

Doubtless one of the factors influencing the choice 
of Middle Plantation as the seat of government in 
Virginia was the presence there of Bruton Church. 
This church, a Gothic structure with buttresses, which 
had been completed in iOS^, was not adequate to serve 
as court church of the colony; and so a new church, 
the same building which stands today, was erected 
between 1711 and 171,5 from plans furnished by 
Governor Spotswood, and became the center of reli- 
gious life in the new capital. Here the governors came 
each Sunday to worship, as did the members of the 
Council and the House of Burgesses when in Williams- 


burg. The aristocracy of Williamsburg and near-by 
plantations assembled here to listen to the sermons 
and to display their best attire. The students of the 
College occupied a special gallery reserved tor them. 
The people of Williamsburg and the surrounding 
country sought spiritual guidance at Bruton Church 

Efq; His Majefty's Lieutenant-Governor, and Commander m 
Chief ol the Colony and Dominion of 

3y a Company of COMEDIANS, from LONDON, 

On fnVot next, be in it the icth of Srftfnltr, wiU be prefenied, 
A PLAY, Call'd. 


(Written by 

in times of stress, as when periods ol drought or 
epidemics ol "distemper" visited the colony, or when 
the political situation became critical. In 1774* tor 
example, when Parliament ordered the sealing of the 
Port of Boston, the House of Burgesses set aside June 
i as a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer. On this 
day, the members of the House proceeded to the 
church in a body "to implore the divine interposition, 
for averting the heavy Calamity which threatens 
destruction to our Civil Rights, and the Evils of civil 

War." Washington wrote in his diary that he "Went 
to [Bruton) Church and lasted all day." 

Life in eighteenth-century Williamsburg followed 
closely the cultural patterns ot the mother country. 
Under the influence of new forces at work in a new 
land, however, colonial Virginians moved steadily 
toward new patterns; they became less English and 
more distinctly citi/ens ot Virginia and of the new 
nation in the making. It was the life and customs 
of the country which dictated the manner of its archi- 
tecture. Although this architecture was based origi- 
nally on the mode of building already established in 
eighteenth-century England, it was "adapted to the 
Nature of the Country" by the local builders and 
(raftsmen and became definitely Virginian. It (hanged 
as life in the colony changed and varied from place 
to place under the influence of local conditions; thus 
Williamsburg, too, developed an architecture of its 
own. The architects of the restoration sought to re- 
capture this local individuality in rebuilding the 
town; in their own words, "fit was] the essence of 
restoration philosophy so to comprehend the eight- 
eenth century in England and so to study its variations 
in the Colonies, especially Virginia, that the Georgian 
mode and manner were eventually translated into a 
vernacular specifically of Williamsburg." 


Buildings and Builders of Williamsburg 

"Williamsburg, at the Revolution, was a town 
of beauty and of architectural significance; its 
major buildings were milestones in the history 
of American style, its Palace Garden perhaps 
the most beautiful in America" 

Fiske Kimball 

T TTN THE YKAR 1759 the traveler Andrew Burnaby 
-L graphically described Williamsburg as a place lor 
"agreeable residence." Me observed that the town was 
"regularly laid out in parallel streets, intersected by 
others at right angles; [it] has a handsome square in 
the center, through which runs the principal street, 
one of the most spacious in North-America. . . . 
At the ends of this street are two public- buildings, 
the college and the capitol, and . . . the whole makes 
a handsome appearance." This "handsome appear- 
ance" owed much to careful town planning, in which 
principles still in use today were followed. The site 
selected was an eminence between two rivers in a 
region reasonably free from the pestilential dampness 
which had made Jamestown so unhcalthful. 


The character of the new town at Middle Planta- 
tion was established in a plan provided in ifxjQ by 
Governor Francis Nicholson, who soon afterwards was 
to boast of being "the Founder of a new City." He 
laid out the stieets and open squares and located the 
proposed public buildings. What proved to be his 
most notable achievement was the stipulation that 
each house lot should be one-half acre in si/e. It was 
furthermore Nicholson's view that each person should 
have his own dwelling place, with a suflicicnt quantity 
of ground for his house, his garden, and orchard. The 
act directing the building of Williamsburg, a measure 
of importance in the history of modern town plan- 
ning, specified "that two hundred K: twenty Acres 
... be ... sett a part for ground on which the said 
City shall be built and erected according to the form 

and manner laid downe in the said draught or plott." 

Analysis of the plan itself underscores the signifi- 
cance of this document. The plot for each home 
builder was precisely specified; comments were even 
made on the design of the houses, and their set-back 
from the street was determined. In several respects 
the regulations read like a /oning ordinance of a 
twentieth-i entury suburban community: 

"The Said City ol Williamsburgh shall be laid out 
and proportioned into halle Acres every of Which 
halle Acre shall be- a distinct lott of ground to be 
built upon in manner and forme as is hereafter ex- 
pressed that is to say that whosoever shall build in the 
mainc Street of the said City ol Williamsburgh 
as laid out in the aforesaid draught or Plott shall 
not build a house less then tenn loot pilch [meaning 
irom ground floor to the second floor] and the front 
of each house shall come within Six foot of the street 
and not nearer and that the houses in the Severall 
lots in the Said main street shall front a like." 

These regulations were made in i (M)(), when other 
cities in the American colonies were also being 
planned Charleston, for example, in 1072, and 
Philadelphia in 1(182, though neither had a plan con- 
ceived in so comprehensive or so grand a manner. 

This was a time of new ideas in town planning. In 
the proposed layout for \Villiamsburg, several novel 
principles were incorporated that Hftfcy well have been 
suggested by the schemes for the rebuilding of Lon- 
don following the Great Fire of i66(). In the plan of 
Williamsburg, as proposed by Governor Nicholson, 
Duke of Gloucester Street was made a wide esplanade, 
skillfully terminated by the Capitol at one'cnd and by 

1 1 

The St. George Tucker House Kitchen, overlooking Palace Green. 


the College at the other. Comparing this for a moment 
with the unrealized plan for the rebuilding of London 
prepared by Sir Christopher Wren, the observer will 
note similar vistas that end with churches and public: 
buildings. Similarities in the width of streets were 
also marked. Duke of Gloucester Street was to be six 
poles, or ninety-nine feet, in width. Wren had called 
for ninety feet as the proposed width of the three 
principal streets of London. In the plan of John 
Evelyn, a farsightcd English amateur architect who 
had hoped to rebuild London on a more orderly and 
spacious scale, the width of the main avenues had 
been specified as one hundred feet. 

teristic of Williamsburg was a story and a half in 
height with a steep shingled roof, suggesting to one 

The College is at one end of Duke of Gloucester 
Street, the Capitol at the other. At a right angle to 
this street is Palace Green, terminated by the Palate. 

The Williamsburg scheme is climaxed by placing 
the Governor's Palace as a terminus facing a long 
and wide grassy plot. This approach to the Palace 
is given additional incisivencss and interest by flank- 
ing the grassy area with catalpas. 


The halt-acre plot specified tor each Williamsburg 
house was the formula that gave an entirely new aspect 
to the settlement on the peninsula. Free-standing 
houses were built, with a garden and orchard space. 
The spacious lots were soon dotted with outbuildings, 
all having a design related to the main house and to 
the gardens. This was decidedly unlike the cramped 
quarters of the narrow and medieval row-housing 
at Jamestown. Whereas the si/e of Jamestown was 
restricted by its island site, Governor Nicholson's 
new town could expand toward the York or James as 
well as iu the direction of Yorktown. 

One type of house which in time came to be charac- 

Bracken House. Early form of house plan, "one room 
deep," having a projecting chimney at each end. In 
some instances there was no central hallway, but 
stairs were within one of the rooms. 

observer the appearance of "an inverted ship with 
ridged hull in the air." This house usually had a great 
chimney of brick at one or both ends, and its windows, 
placed on each side of a doorway, were often spaced 
with Vitruvian regularity. Dormers gave life to the 

Hugh Jones, in The Present State of Virginia, 
describes Williamsburg as it appeared in the years 
1721 through 172.]. "Here," he says, "as in other 

Captain Orr's Dwelling. A typical Williamsburg house, 
one story and a half in height, having a steep roof 
in the form of an A. 


Parts, they build with Brick, but most commonly 
with Timber lined with Cieling, and cased with 
feather-edged Plank, painted with white Lead and 
Oil, covered with Shingles of Cedar, &c. tarr'd over at 
first; with a Passage generally through the Middle oi 
the House for an Air-Draught in Summer." Gover- 
nor Berkeley's house at Green Spring, two miles from 
Jamestown, was, according to the historian Bruce, 
described by a < ontempoiary as having a "wide hall 
characteristic of all the larger dwellings in Virginia at 
this time. . . . The wideness of the hall was for the 
purpose of obtaining the fullest ventilation, (he 
climate of this part of the Colony in the warm season 
being oppressive and unwholesome." 

The house types of Williamsburg are in some 
respects local or indigenous to Virginia. All are 
moderate in si/e, yet comfortable and commodious. 
Their architecture is of a practical sort, without orna- 
ment or pretense, and their plain exteriors are free 
from columns or other evidences of "the orders of 
architectuie." With the single exception of the Gov- 
ernor's Palace, none of them recalls the academic 
grandeur of plantation mansions such as West over, 
Shirley, or Rosewell. It is this simple type of house 
to which Isaac Ware refers in his Complete Body of 
Architecture (1756), and which, he says, appeals to 
the man in the country, who may be desirous of build- 
ing "without columns, or other expensive decora- 

Although altered somewhat irom decade to decade, 

three general plan types of Williamsburg houses of 
the eighteenth century may be identified and de- 
scribed. The first may be called the "one-room-deep" 
plan. This has a hallway at its center and a room at 
either side. Tidewater Virginia had many such houses, 

"Two-room-deep" plan with side hallway 
(Tayloc House). 

Gambrel roof with steep lower slope (Tuyloe House), 
devised so as to obtain greater floor area within the 

a type rarely found in New Knglancl. This room 
arrangement apparently grew out of the seventeenth- 
century dwelling, "built of wood, yet contrived so 
delightful!, that your ordinary houses in England are 
not so handsome." The plan illustration of the 
Bracken House repiodncecl on the previous page 
shows the rooms flanking the hallway to be of unequal 
width. The number of windows on eithei side of the 
doorway sometimes varies. This type of house had a 
chimney, usually an outside chimney, at one or both 
ends of the building. 

A second type became popular near the middle of 
the eighteenth century; this was the "two-room-deep" 
plan, with a side hall. This one-sided plan appears, 
from its several examples, to have been a favorite 
arrangement. The Orrell and Lightfoot houses are 
typical, as well as the Tayloe House before addi- 
tions weie made. The front room, often designated 
"the pailor," was usually almost square and had a 
corner fireplace as did also the back room. The chim- 
ney was contained within the wall and one stack of 
flues served the two rooms. The corner fireplace was 
an innovation of the time of William and Mary. 


John Fvelyn speaks of it disdainfully in 1692, saying 
that "This plan of placing fireplaces in the* corner 

The IV y the House. Third plan type, 
two rooms deep with center hall. 

of rooms has come into fashion ... I predict that 
it will spoil many noble houses and rooms if followed. 
It does only well in very small and t riding rooms." It 
was, however, economical to construct, and the added 

heat rellected into the room because of the angle of 
the walls made it efficient. Finally, as one writer says, 
"it offers a more prominent position for a painting"! 
A third and much more pretentious type of Wil- 
liamsburg house was also two rooms in depth, but 
with a center hall and chimneys built within the 
area of the plan. The Governor's Palace is based on 
this arrangement, as are also the George \Vythe, 
Carter-Saunders, and Allen-Byrd plans, and that of 
the President's House at the College. Most houses 
of this type have four rooms on each floor. The Cartcr- 
Saunders House is exceptional in having, with its one 
stairway, a second hall at the coiner. 


For the small house, wood framing faced with 
weal het boarding continued to be the common con- 
struction method in the Virginia colony throughout 
the eighteenth century. The popularity of wood is 
ascribed to a contemporary prejudice that houses 

The Quarter recalls the single-room "sufficient dwelling house," ifi feet deep by 24 feet wide, 
which every Williamsburg landowner was required to build. 


in In the 

the by "Babe** 


Old colonial brickwork of the Public Records Office, 
showing texture of brick and glazed headers. 


with brick walls were damp and consequently less 
wholesome. Jefferson, writing of construction in 
Virginia in 1784, notes that "private buildings are 
very rarely constructed of brick or stone; much the 
greater portion being of scantling and boards, 
plastered with lime." Williamsburg, however, had 
its fair share of brick buildings, showing usually a 
traditional use of English bond below the water 
table and Flemish bond above. Knglish bond can 
readily be rccogni/ed by the surface pattern made up 
of a row of "header" bricks placed over a row of 
"stretchers." Flemish bond has alternating headers 
and stretchers over the entire wall surface. Madame 
Knight, a noted traveler of the period, remarked on 
the appearance of Flemish bond in New York: "Bricks 
in some of the houses are of divers colors and laid in, 
checkers." Diamond patterns sometimes supplement 
the checkers on the eastern shore of Virginia and in 
Princess Anne County. One authority, writing in the 
early part of the nineteenth century, thus appraised 
(he two methods: "Flemish bond is deemed the 
neatest and most beautiful, but is attended with a 
great deal of inconvenience in the execution, and in 
most cases does not unite the parts of a wall with the 
same degree of firmness as the English bond." 

Bricks used for buildings of the town were burned 
on or near the site and were laid in a coarse oyster- 
shell lime mortar. The gray-green gla/e seen on some 
headers was imparted by burning the bricks in a kiln 
fired with oakwood. Only those bricks nearest the 
heat acquired the gla/cd surface. The use of bricks 
rubbed down to a smooth surface or to a molded 
profile was a favorite means of imparting finish to a 
building. The rubbing was done with sharp sand on a 
piece of millstone or by rubbing two bricks together. 
Most of the colonial brick buildings in Williamsburg 
have rubbed brick for arches, water tables, and string- 
courses, and at the corners of their walls and chim- 
neys. The finest example of original rubbed moldings 
is that in the pediment edge of the entrance doorway 
of the Public Records Office, near the Capitol. The 
versatility of the artisans who produced these and 
the moldings of the chimney tops is one of the most 
striking achievements of this age of craftsmanship. 

The controversial theory that brick sixes can be 
used to determine the age of a building receives little 
support in Williamsburg, where a wide variety of 
sizes occurs. Bricks of largest dimensions appear in 


l^ip,<; -i i ;T ''^^TOTr^^^^^^^v^ 1 ^^ 

Pu&ftr Records Building, office of the Secretary of the Colony. The doorway design with its 
molded brick pediment and projecting brick pilasters was used repeatedly in Tidewater Virginia 

and closely resembles that of near-by Carter's Grove. 

brick walls and pavements. The statute bricks of 
England, by act of Parliament, 1776, were 2j/' by 4 
by 9 inches; this can be compared with an earlier 
statute brick of 1685, 2j4 Y 4/4 by 8 ?4 inches. These 
British statute sizes did have their echo in the Virginia 
colony, however. The bricks for a wall around St. 
Peter's Church, New Kent County, were in 1719 
specified to be "according to the Statute something 
Less then Nine Indies in Length, two Inches and one 
quarter thick, and lour Inches and one quarter Wide." 
Numerous studies of masonry building in Amer- 
ica before the Revolution I'eport that brick was 
brought from England as ballast. It has become cus- 
tomary to refute this claim. Certainly, most building 
sites in town and on plantations were the scene of 
brick burning, and clay suitable for brick was found 
everywhere in Tidewater Virginia. There does exist, 
however, a reasonable basis for the claim that brick 

occasionally was imported into the Virginia colony. 
This importation as ballast is implied by an act of 
October, 1748, "That nothing herein contained shall 
be construed to prohibit or restrain the master of any 
ship or other vessel, bringing limestone, chalk, bricks, 
or stone for building, to lade or put the same on 
board any other vessel, in order to be carried or trans- 
ported to any place he shall think fit." 

Outside wood walls of dwellings and dairy build- 
ings were sometimes filled with partly burned bricks. 
This construction was vastly superior as insulation and 
also more fireproof than ordinary lathing and plaster- 
ing on wood frame. The outer walls of the John 
Blair House and a few others were found to be of 
this type. A recommendation was made in the colonies 
that, "Partitions [of wood] between rooms . . . might 
be superseded, for greater security, by partitions of 
4 inch brick walls, vulgarly called 'bricknogging'. 



. . . Many houses have been burned by servants 
sticking candles against wooden partitions." 


The huge outside house chimneys so familiar in the 
Williamsburg landscape appear to be typical of Tide- 
water Virginia, although not restricted to the colony. 
They derive from earlier examples in England and 
are associated there with the seventeenth century. 
Following the Great Fire of ifiu'G, chimney stacks for 
London were regulated "within the wall face." 

The characteristic Virginia chimney is of brick, 
broad at the base so as to give a roomy fireplace 
within, sloping at the sides to a smaller upper shaft. 
Because of the need to make domestic, fires safe, the 
chimney top rises past the gable of the house without 
coming into contact with shingles or other woodwork. 
This chimney form may have followed closely that of 
the original wood-framed or "catted" chimney. The 
wooden prototypes appear to have been common in 
early days. Samuel Groome in 10*83 wrote one of the 
Proprietors in London that his chimney was "made 
with timber and clay as the manner of this country 
is to build." Examples of wood-frame chimneys con- 
tinued to be built for occasional outbuildings in 
Virginia until the end of the nineteenth century. 

"Catted" chimney of Virginia cabin. The "cats" were 
pieces of "straw and clay worked together in pretty 
large rolH and laid between the wooden posts." 

Outside brick chimney of the Todd House near 
Freclericksburg. The sloping Hanks indicate the posi- 
tion of the fireplaces within. 


Paralleling the political and social prestige of Wil- 
Jiamsburg, its architecture too had a wide influence. 
As early as 1665, long before the town was established, 
a church was ordered built in Middlesex County 
"according to the Modall of the Aliddle-plantacon 
Church in all Respects." Later, in 1719, when an en- 
closing wall and gates were voted for St. Peter's 
Church in New Kent County, the instructions to the 
builder were for "Handsom made after the 
fiorm of Iron Gates . . . with a hollow Spire a Top. 
. . . [The] Wall to be in all Respects as well Done as 
the Capitol wall in Williams: Burgh." The town of 
Hanover Court House at mid-century specified that 
its new powder maga/iue follow in design the Maga- 
/itie at Williamsburg 1 . It is known also that builders 
living in Williamsburg Morris, Cary, Mincirce, and 
others were commissioned to construct plantation 
houses in the surrounding country. 

Opposite, chimney of the James Anderson 
Kitchen. The broad base of kitchen chim- 
neys in Williamsburg sometimes enclosed 
an oven as well as a fireplace. 


The Governor's House was described by a traveler 
as large, commodious, and handsome. 


An act of June 7, 1699, directed the building of 
the Capitol in Williamsburg. This structure is a nota- 
ble landmark in colonial American architecture, partly 
because it is one of the first public buildings of si/e 
erected in the colonies, and partly because it gave the 
first evidence of transition from the essential medie- 
valism of Bacon's Castle to what was to become the 
classical manner of eighteenth-century Virginia. Its 
H plan suggests the past, but externally the appear- 
ance is classical, with round-headed sash windows 
and doors, bracketed cornice, balconies, and cupola. 

The act prescribed that the building "Shall be 
made in the forme and figure H . . . the foundation 
. . . shall be four Bricks thick . . . the length of each 
Side or parte . . . shall be seventy five foot . . . one 
end of each Part or Side of Which Shall be . . . Semi- 
circular and the lower rooms at the . . . end fifty foot 
long." A "handsome Staire Case" is specified, and 
there were to be "great folding gates to each Porch 
of Six fool breadth . . . the windows to each Story of 
the Saicl building Shall be Sash windows and . . . the 
roofc Shall be a hip roof with Dormand windows." 
In the middle of the roof there was to be "a Cupulo 
to surmount the rest, of the building Which Shall 
have a Clock placed in it and on the top of the Said 
Cupulo Shall be put a flag upon occasion." 

Drawings of a simple nature were used by the 
builders to supplement this detailed description. Suc- 
cinct but positive reference is made to a "Draught" 
and "Model I of the said Capitoll." Henry Cary, a 
builder known also as "Carpenter" and " Overseer." 
was employed upon his own petition to superintend 
the work. Shortly afterward the committee for the 
building authorized "the said Henry Cary to agree 
with any Capcable pson to make 500000 bricks for 
the Capitol." Construction progressed so that by July 
20, 1703 "That, parte that the Corte sitts in is Coin- 
pica tly firm i shed on the outside except the Balcony 
over the (irate doorc Comming in on the west side 
8c the lower flower are finished for that the Cortc 
sate there in Aprill last." 

The instructions for building were not complete 
in the original act, and "Further Directions in Build 
ing the Capitoll" were incorporated in a supplemen- 
tal act of August, 1701. It would therefore appear 
that the design conception for the building was prob- 



ably not complete at the outset; alterations were 
made from time to time, and Gary made many sug- 
gestions during the course of building. 

Construction of the Governor's House followed, as 
authori/ed in 170(1. Gary was again asked to direct 
construction, "to inspect, oversee, and provide for 
the building aforesaid, with full power to begin, 
carry on, and finish the same." This building ad- 
vanced more slowly than the Capitol, in part because 
of dilliculties in obtaining funds. On November a.|, 
1710 Gary was forced to petition the General Assem- 
bly for his full pay of one bundled pounds per an- 
num, owed to him as "Overseer of the building." He 
declared that the money originally appropriated had 
long been exhausted, but that he felt himself under 
'obligation to take care of and protect the building 
in its incompletcd condition; he complained that he 
had been put to considerable expense, and to save 
himself from ruin had broken up housekeeping at his 
own plantation and moved his family to the unfin- 
ished building, "all of which was very prejudicial." 

Governor Spots wood finally brought the building 
to completion, but not until about 1720. As a reward 
for his efforts, after rumors of mismanagement, the 
Burgesses had charged him with "lavishing away the 
Country's Funds." From this circumstance, and be- 
cause of elaborate later additions, the House of the 
Governor came to be known as the "Governor's 


An architect during the first part of the eighteenth 
century was known as a "Master Workman; in a 
Building . . . he who designs the Model, or draws the 
Plot, Plan, or Draught . . . [and] whose Business it is 
to consider the whole Manner and Method of the 
Building." In many instances he was a carpenter or 
a bricklayer. It is clear that the ability to produce a 
"draught" was also the accomplishment of an edu- 
cated gentleman. As an instance, Henry Gary is 
spoken of as a "Gentleman" as well as "Overseer." 
In Virginia there were no trained architects until the 
time of William Bu< kland, who arrived in the colony 
in 1753, serving Robert Wormeley Carter in i7(>(). 
Other architects were gifted amateurs; those active in 
\Villiamsbtirg include Thomas Jefferson and Richard 
Taliaferro. Curiously, however, not a single building 
of Williamsburg of the eighteenth century can be as- 

The ornamental cupola of the Capitol wa* first of its 
kind in colonial America. 


C O L O N I A L XV I L L 1 A M S B U R G 

signed with documentary proof to an architect as 

Jefferson, periodically a XVilliamsburg resident, 
made drawings for the College in 1772. He proposed 
that a quadrangle be added to the west end of the 
main building. He also made sketches for recondi- 
tioning the Palace. Neither of these proposals was 
ever executed. There was therefore some bitterness 
when he wrote in 178} that few attempts were made at 
"elegance." "Indeed it would not be easy to execute 
such an attempt, as a workman could scarcely be 
found capable of drawing an order." 


The working details used by builders of the early 
eighteenth century in composing their building de- 

signs were obtained from builders' handbooks, of 
which many had been published in London before 

The functions of the colonial architect were exercised 
by gentlemen and builders called "undertakers." The 
advertisement above is from the Virginia Gazette of 

Features such as cornices, doors, windows, and chimney detamwere cop lea from 

bQoks, but the exterior design of a typical Williamsburg bouse such as the Alexander Craig 

was a development of the local carpenter and mason. 


1700. These early manuals warrant description. The 
handbooks informed the builders how to frame a wall 
or roof, how to produce designs of windows, doorways, 
balconies, fireplaces, and cornices. A minimum of in- 
struction was given, however, on the "orders of archi- 
tecture," and no complete designs for buildings were 
included. Yet with this limited assistance the crafts- 
men built the Capitol, Palace, and many other early 
eighteenth-century Williamsburg buildings. 

Later, actual designs of buildings were incorpo- 
rated in more comprehensive publications by such 
men as James Gibbs, Isaac Ware, William Halfpenny, 
and Robert Morris. These writer-architects were pro- 
ducers of designs which, to quote Gibbs in 1728, 

"would be of use to such Gentlemen as might be con- 
cerned in Building, especially in the remote parts of 
the Country, where little or no assistance for Designs 
can be procured." 

Books on architecture were frequently included 
on the library lists of residents of Williamsburg. 
Maurice Kvington, a carpenter-builder, advertised in 
the Virginia Gazette in 1779, the sale of "12 or 15 
books of architecture, by the latest and best authors in 
Britain, viz Swan, Pain, iMngley, Halfpenny, Kx;. &c." 
George Wythe, with a more scholarly interest, wrote 
abroad for a copy of Vitruvius in Latin, having the ad- 
vice of Thomas Jefferson that ''the edition of Vitru- 
vius . . . with commentaries by Ticinus ... is best." 

"Examples of the principal items in the carpenter's equipment are 
illustrated below, with their numbers shown at right. For each named 
example there were many varieties adapted to special uses. Of planes 
alone, the carpenter often owned thirty or more. Many of these tools 
were made by the carpenter or by the local blacksmith, i. Mallet, for 
driving dowels and wedges. 2. Adjustable Level. 3. "Square" for 
angles and measuring. 4. Compass used as dividers and to inscribe 
circles. 5. Screw Driver, not used much before 1800. (>. Auger. 
7. Buck Saw. 8. Open Hand Saw. 9. Jackplane. 10. Molding Plane. 
'Haw Hammer. 12. Brace. 13. Adze. 14. Hatchet. 15. Gimlet. 

Tools of the pioneer American builders. The tools used by the carpenter in Virginia, two centuries ago, are 
almost identical with those familiar tools found in the carpenter's chest today. 

The Manner of Furnishings 

"How much more agreeable it is to sit in the 
midst of old furniture . . . which \has] come 
down from other generations, than amid tliat 
which was just brought from I lie Cabinet- 
makers, smelling of varnish, like a coflm!" 


Tm; COLONISTS in eighteenth-century Virginia 
made a deliberate effort to ereate and maintain 
an environment comparable to that of England. 
They kept informed of the latest decorative practices 
in the mother country and followed them in the 
treatment of the interiors of their homes and public 
buildings. Many of the materials for finishing and 
furnishing these were imported from England, and 
colonial artisans were in large part trained there. Nu- 
merous travelers were struck by the marked similarity 
of the appointments of Virginia and English houses; 
a comment made by one visitor about 1755 concern- 
ing an ordinary in Lecdstown, Virginia, may be taken 
as typical. "The chairs, Tables, &c: of the Room I was 
conducted into, was all of Mahogany, and so sttift with 
line large glai/ed Copper Plate Prints: That f almost 
fancied myself in Jeffness* [in London]." 


The interior walls of \Villiamsburg buildings of 
the eighteenth century were usually plastered, use 
being made of oyster-shell lime, river sand, and ani- 
mal hair. The plaster was commonly whitewashed. 

Full-length wainscoting or paneling, originally a 
protection against damp walls, was sometimes used 

Opposite) common room for 
dining, in the Raleigh Tavern. 

in \Villiamsburg homes, as in the Peyton Randolph 
House, but it was more often employed in public 
buildings stub as the Capitol and the Palace or in the 
larger mansions of plantation owners. A builder's 
dictionary of 1771 defines wainscot as "the timber 
work that serves to line the walls of a room, being 
usually made in pannels, and painted, to serve instead 
of hangings." In Williamsburg, the wainscot was cus- 
tomarily of local pine. 

A "dwarf" wainscot or dado, carried to a height of 
from three to five feet from the floor, was more com- 
mon in both private and public buildings. In some 
cases where the dado is used, special emphasis is given 
the fireplace by carrying paneling above it to the 
ceiling. A fine example of stub treatment may be 
seen on the east wall of the living room of the Hrtish- 
Everarcf House, where also a chair-height wainscot 
has remained in place since its original installation in 
the eighteenth century. 

A still more frequent wall treatment is that in 
which paneling is completely dispensed with, leaving 
only the wood base and cornice and a heavy, waist- 
high protective molding known as a chair rail. A 
variety of wall treatments might often be found 
within a single building; for example, there was 
ample precedent in the reconstructed Capitol for the 
use of ceiling-height wainscoting in the' Council 


Chamber and the Court Room, a dado in the 1 louse 
of Burgesses, and a chair rail only in certain commit- 
tee rooms. 

An eighteenth-century architect-builder, in a dis- 
cussion of English wall treatments that applies 

equally well to Virginia, states that the rooms "were 
commonly wainscoted quite up to the ceiling, and 
terminated by a cornice; but later the custom is to 
carry it only up (hair high . . . [whereas] the rest of 
the wall is covered with flowered paper, which is very 

cheap and beautiful, or else it is finished with stucco 
covered with hanging; to prevent the paper being 
spoiled by the dampness of the wall, it is pasted on 
thin cloth, and fixed in frames." 

Wallpapers became fashionable in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century as a substitute for white 
washed and paneled walls and because of a desire tot 
added enrichment. The mode 
at one' period lavored Chinese 
designs. The Virginia Ga- 
zct/c of December 28, 17^)9 
(allied an advertisement that 
"JosF.pii Kmn, Upholsterer, 
i n \\' ill. in in s h u r<r , H A N G s 
rooms with paper or damask, 
stuffs sophas, couches, and 
(hairs, in the neatest manner, 
makes all sorts of bed furni- 
ture, window curtains, and 
matrasses, and fits carpets to 
any room with the greatest 
exactness. ... He also under- 
takes all sorts of norsK PAINTING, GILDING, and GLA/- 
ING; and paints lloor cloths, chimney boards, and 
signs, according to directions." 

Records show that wallpaper was used in the Pal- 
ace. In a letter written on April 15, 1771 to Samuel 
Athawes, Robert Beverley, referring to the Ballroom, 
states that "I/ 1 . B. [Lord Botetourt) had hung a room 
with plain blue paper border'd it with a narrow 
stripe of gilt Leather." When the Palace interiors 
were restored, the walls of the Supper Room were 

Early wallpaper (fac- 
simile) from a Wil- 
liamslmrg house. 


covered with eighteenth-century paper painted in the 
Chinese manner, since Chinese patterns were in 
vogue in England at the time the wing containing 
this room was added. The Family Sitting Room was 
hung with tooled and gilt Spanish Morocco leather 
similar to that mentioned in an inventory of Lord 
Botetourt's estate. In the Raleigh Tavern, damask 
was hung on the walls of the 
Ladies' Withdrawing Room, 
after the manner of that used 
in the Carter-Saunclers 
House, where the wood strips 
used to attach the fabric still 
remain embedded in the 
plaster walls of certain rooms. 
Casement windows with 
leaded glass were the pre- 
vailing window type in Vir- 
ginia throughout the sev- 
enteenth century, and the 
discovery of lead carnes in 
foundation excavations at 
VVilliamsburg suggests that they may have been used 
there occasionally in the early eighteenth century. 
Meanwhile, the vertical-sliding "guillotine" window 
tame into favor and soon became the dominant type. 
G la/ing was customary but, because of the expense ol 
imported English glass, not universal. Basement win- 
dows had wood frames with square bars, but no 
provision for gla/ing, since the damp climate made 
circulation of air beneath the house a necessary pre- 
caution against mold and the rotting of timbers. 

damask reproduce ion, 
Raleigh Tavern. 

i. "Dwarf" wainscot, and paneled mantel facing of arched 
fireplace, Market Square Tavern. 2. Eighteenth-century 
drawing of Venetian blind (Diderot), 1765. 3. Operation 
of Venetian blind, window of Chowniiig's Tavern. 4. 
Bedroom of the Wythc House, showing eighteenth- 
century quilt, original printed toile bed hangings match- 
ing the window curtains, and rag rug (reproduction) on 
the floor. 5. Original wall-height paneling of Peyton 
Randolph House. 6. The Rotctourt Stove, "the newly 
invented warming machine" considered by its inventor 
"as a masterpiece not to be equalled in all Europe." 

Window weights of lead, with pulleys, were intro- 
duced early in the century, although ordinarily only 
the lower sash was made to operate. The common 
type of sash window throughout the eighteenth cen- 
tury was, however, without sash weights. 

Outside shutters were used on wood-frame struc- 
tures, whereas in brick houses and public buildings 
the deep reveals permitted the tise of inside or wain- 
scot shutters which folded against the jambs. Vene- 
tian blinds were introduced into Virginia after the 
middle of the eighteenth century. The I'irginin (t(i- 
zellc in 1770 noted that Joshua Kendall, house car- 
penter and joiner, "Bic.s leave to inform the Public: 
that he . . . makes the best and newest invented Vene- 
tian SUN BUNDS for windows, that move to any posi- 
tion so as to give different lights, they screen from 
the scorching rays of the sun, draw up as a curtain, 
prevent being overlooked, give 1 a cool refreshing air 
in hot weather, and arc- the greatest preservatives of 
furniture of any thing of the kind ever invented." 

Windows were hung with draperies or curtains of 
damask, chintv, calico, printed linen, linsey-woolsey, 
or like- mate-rials. In bedchambers these usually 
matched the curtains of the bed. 

Most Virginia rooms of the eighteenth century had 
a fireplace, since this was virtually the only means of 
heating at the time, fay the latter part of the century 
a few stoves existed, and one example, the "Botetourt 
Stove," a cast-iron "ventilating type" which was given 
to the Mouse of Burgesses and probably stood at one 
time in the Palace, can still be seen in Williamsburg. 
The fireplace was usually centered on the side or end 

wall of the room. Corner 
fireplace's, however, were 
more frequent in Williams- 
burg and Virginia than 
elsewhere in the colonies. 
Typically these* corner fire- 
places were built back-to- 
back in adjoining rooms, a 
single chimney serving the 
pair. Fireplace* openings 
were large at the beginning 
of the century, tending 
later to decrease in si/.e 
both because of the grow- 
ing scarcity of wood and 
because improvements in 

C L O N I A L W I L L I A M S B U R G 

their construction made them more efficient. The 
openings were spanned by a beam of heavy oak or by 
a brick arch until the time of the Revolution, alter 
which the iron lintel gradually became common. 

Stone lor paving and mantels had to be brought to 
\Villiamsburg from F.ngland or other parts of Vir- 
ginia and the colonies, since, with the exception ol 
coarse marl rock which was only occasionally used for 
building, there was none native to the peninsula. 
William Byrd in 1732 recommended the quarrying 
of a "white stone" found near Frederic ksburg. "ap- 
pearing to be as lair and fine grained as that of Port- 
land." This stone was used in \Villiainsburg and else- 
where in Virginia. Marbles and other stones lor man- 
tels were not confined to more pretentious buildings 
like the Palace but were also fairly common in pri- 
vate house's. 1 he ledger ol Humphrey Harwood, a 
\Villiamsburg carpenter-mason, records the following 
hill to Mrs. Betty Randolph, the widow of Peyton 
Randolph: "Deer. i > [1778! To Repairing marble 
Chimney Piece i u/ [shillings)," and in 1790 occurs 
this entry in the account of John Blair, Ksq.: "To 
setting up i> grates (one very large)- taking down 
the marble -mantel-piece and taking up the Hearth 
relaying them i<S /." The marble mantels found 
today in the Peyton Randolph and John Blair houses, 
it is believed, are the very ones mentioned in liar- 
wood's account book. 

Most mantel facings were of wood, and these were 
sometimes incorporated into the paneling of the 
room or combined with overmantels. The woodwork 
was separated from the fireplace opening by a plas- 
tered brick "frame" of varying width. A hearth of 
brick or, quite frequently, English Purbcck or Port- 
land stone, was provided. 

Exposed beam ceilings had prevailed in the colony 
throughout the seventeenth century, but by the close 
of the first quarter of the eighteenth century ceilings 
of residences in \Villiamsburg were almost without 
exception lathed and plastered, for, as is noted in 
The Builders Dictionary of 173.1. experience re- 
vealed that "The Plaisterecl Ceilings so much used 
in England, beyond all other Countries, make by 
their whiteness the Rooms so much Lightsomer, and 
are excellent against raging Fires. They stop the Pass- 
age of the Dust, and lessen the noise over head; and 
in Summertime the Air of a Room is something the 
cooler for 'them, and in the Winter something the 



The plastered 

of the 






Warmer, because it keeps out cold Air better than the 
Board-floors alone can do." 

The use of stone floors was restricted to public 
buildings; the Purbeck stone of the Capitol and Palace 
is notable. Brick and brickbat floors and pounded 
clay were commonly found in kitchens and other de- 
pendencies. Aside from this, how- 
ever, flooring was universally of 
local yellow pine, usually \y\ inches 
thick and laid in from 5- to jo-inch 
widths in edge grain; this was laid 
without undcrilooi ing and gener- 
ally face-nailed. 

Rugs were used sparingly on 
these floors. They included Knglish 
and Oriental types as well as needle- 
point and several varieties of rag rugs. Until almost 
the middle of the eighteenth century carpets men- 
tioned in records were used primarily as coverings for 
tables and bureaus; the turkey carpet specified for 
the table of the Council Chamber of the Capitol is a 
conspicuous example. Later, carpets as floor cover- 
ings came into vogue, along with painted floor cloths; 
both were advertised for sale in \Villiamsburg. 
Scotch, Indian, and other types, including turkey- 
work carpeting, were used. Among the papers of 
John Norton Sons, merchants of London and Vir- 
ginia, is an invoice of August i j, 1769 listing, to- 
gether with other art ides to be sent "by the fust Ship 
lor York River," to Mrs. Martha Jacquelin "2 Kil- 
marnock | Scotch | Carpets, i large & i small [and] i 
painted duck Floor Cloth." Painted floor cloths were 

v . , .onlun, juiii) 
ttutied Kim to parrel titrm ml rcJptA. 

THE College of WILLIAM & MAHV ha* 
bttf) lately cleaned, and will I* irnm*r airly pUftctvd turf white 
, to rvudtr if nl f' I)M Kccrixicm of ib ProMUri, Stmltnn, 
nr SchoUri, nd Sttvtnuj indtlx fr?erl ScHoelt wtlitKinxt 
ftl tta Beginning of Trimly Ttrm, nmU ( on MM^W th ifvh d o< 

T EFT in the NeccfTury Houfc at 

cheaper substitutes for carpets and may be considered 
the forerunners of our linoleum and oilcloth. They 
were made of stout canvas coated with oil paint and 
printed with a pattern, and were generally used on 

stairs and in halls and rooms of lesser importance. 
Rush mats were also in use throughout the century. 


In eighteenth-century Virginia, the range of colors 
from which the painter could choose was restricted 
compared to the wide variety at his 
disposal today. Paints were pur- 
chased in England, and numerous 
invoices, letters, and advertisements 
have provided reasonably complete 
information as to paint ingredients 
available* at the time. For example, 
William Allason, a wholesale mer- 
chant of Falmouth, Virginia, from 
i7(io to 1790, lists in his "invoice 
book" such inventories as: 

On hand- -Copperas, 16 pounds 


Light Blue 


10 Casks White Lead 

i Cask Red Lead 

i Cask Spanish Brown 

Red Paint from Maryland 

Linseed Oil, 10 gall. 

These ingredients and certain others such as burnt 
umber, yellow ocher, orpimcnt, verdigris, litharge, 
Spanish whiting, lime for white- 
wash, archil, and walnut oil consti- 
tuted the palette with which the 
colonial painter worked. 

In those days painters used both 
oil and water paints. Linseed oil, 
made of ground flaxsecd, and oil 
of walnut were the vehicles used in 
oil paints. Although both of these 1 
were produced in the colony, they 
were also frequently imported. Of 
the two, walnut oil was the lust to 
be used, and it was considered 
better than linseed oil for interior work, "lor Lind- 
seed Oyl within doors will turn yellow, and spoil the 
beauty of it [the paint]; which . . . Walnut-Oyl . . . 
prevents; for that makes it keep a constant white 
ness." Oil of turpentine, a rapid-drying spirit ob- 
tained from native yellow pine, was often, used as a 

Pens, such as these for official use at the Capitol, were made of quills ot the goose ana .nc w 

White lead (carbonate of 
lead), tailed a body pigment 
because it forms the bulk of 
the paint, was, in colonial 
times as today, a primary in- 
gredient of oil paints. There 
were two chief varieties, one 
called ceruse, which was the 
purest and cleanest sort, and 
the other simply white lead; 
a third, flake white, is spoken of 
as scarce and dear, "to be found 
only under the Lead | roofs | 
of some very old Buildings, 
where time has by the assistance 
of some sharp quality in the 
Air, (bus reduced the under- 
mosl superficies of the Lead." 
The color pigments, reds, blues, 
greens, yellows, and browns, 
were derived from natural 
earths (Spanish brown, burnt 
umber, yellow ocher); from 
metals (copperas, verdigris, or- 
pimeni, and red lead); and 
from plants (indigo and archil). 

Whitewash, a water paint, 
was made in the eighteenth 
century, as it is now, by slaking 
quicklime in water. The lime- 
wash was often colored by the 
addition of various pigments. 
Copperas (sulphate of iron), 
for example, was added to make 
it green; ocher, to give it a yel- 
low hue ; and archil, a color ob- 
tained from the liverwort 
plant, to produce a deep blue 
tone. Archil, once employed by the Romans, had been 
used in Kngland since the Middle Ages to decorate 
the inside walls (and occasionally the outside stone- 
work) of houses. Milk and buttermilk, furthermore, 
were occasionally used as vehicles in these color washes. 

Walls and ceilings in eighteenth-century Virginia 
were commonly whitewashed; or the wash was some- 
times colored. Annual whitewashing was the rule, al- 
though it might be done more often as a sanitary 
measure. The exteriors of frame buildings were like- 

Conference Room,, Capitol, with brass candlesticks copied from an original in 
the Victoria and Albeit Museum. 

wise frequently whitewashed during the colonial 
period, as were brick structures late in the eighteenth 
century. In the case of brick buildings, the lime wash 
served more 1 than a decorative fund ion, since it 
formed a hard, crystalline coating on the brick and 
helped to preserve it. Whitewash continued in use 
throughout the century, as indicated by a notice of 
1792 in the Calendar of Virginia State Paj^rs "that 
Dabney Minor be directed to whitewash the Pedes- 
tals upon the top of the Capitol [in Richmond], & 

C O L ( ) N 1 A L VV I L L 1 A M S B U R G 

the Pilasters with Stone Lime, with a mixture of 
Lamp black to give it the resemblance of stone." 

Of the oil colors used in exterior painting in Wil- 
liamsburg during the eighteenth century, Spanish 
brown was a favorite. John Smith, philomath, an 
early authority on house painting, characteri/cd it 
as "a dark, dull red, of a Horse-flesh colour, 'tis an 
Farth, it being dug out of the ground, but. there is 
some of it of a colour pleasant enough to the Kye . . . 
'tis of great use among Painters, being generally used 
as the first and primary colour, that they lay upon 
any kind of timber work, being cheap and plentiful." 
Spanish brown served on occasion as the finish coat 
both in interior and exterior work, and it is likely 
that many Williamsburg houses were of this color. 
Other colors much in vogue during the first half of 
the eighteenth century for exterior and interior 
woodwork were lead color, made of a mixture <>1 in- 
digo and white, and stone color, a white with a slight 
bluish tint. If the accounts of travelers of the time 
are to be accepted, however, white was the prevailing 
color for house exteriors in Williamsburg. Though 
fences were generally whitewashed or painted, evi- 
dence indicates that they were sometimes coated with 
pine tar as a protection against the weather. One 
writer of the time, in fact, states that "The common 
peoples houses . . . [in Virginia] are in general tarr'd 
all over to preserve them instead of Painting." 

Interior woodwork was occasionally left in a nat- 
ural state, but more often it was painted. Stone and 
wood colors, Spanish brown, and white were favor- 
ites for window frames and bars, doors, stair rails and 
balusters, mantels, paneling, cornices, and other trim. 

Marblei/.ed Wood Baseboard. Photograph of 
actual eighteenth-century example. 

Greens were also used and. of these, verdigris, a green 
made of copper rust and inclining to bluish, was con- 
sidered the best and most useful. It was this color, or 
one like it, that was used to produce some of the 
familiar blue-green colors of Williamsburg. Shades 
of yellow and "timber" colors, colors used to imitate 
the tones" of natural woods, vied with these in popu- 

larity. Frequent mention is made, for example, of 
"wainscot" color, umber mixed with white in imita- 
tion of oaken wainscot. Olive wood was simulated by 
ocher, mixed with a little white, veined over with 
burnt umber; walnut, by burnt umber and white, 
with veining of burnt umber and black. These last 
two imitations are early instances of graining. Other 
popular methods of finishing interior woodwork 
were: the painting of wainscoting, doors, and other 
trim to resemble marble* a 
treatment known to have been 
specified for the Council Cham- 
ber and other parts of the Cap- 
^ ^ itl; painting to imitate tortoise 

shell; and staining. Skirting 
(baseboards) was customarily 
painted black in Virginia. 

Much of the furniture' of the eighteenth-century 
living room or parlor, that "fair lower room designed 
primarily for the entertainment of company," was 
comparable to that in our own houses. A spinet or 
harpsichord, for example, took the place of our piano, 
and a barrel organ (the record-player of the day) 
might have been found. Despite the vehement objec- 
tions of such strict: moralists as the Reverend William 
Stith, who preached before the General Assembly 
in 1752 on "The Sinfulness and pernicious Nature of 
(Taming," a drop-leal card table for piquet, or dice 
often stood in readiness against one wall. The fire- 
place had its complement of "fire clogs" (andirons), 
tongs, shovel, and bellows, a chimney board to close 
the fireplace opening when not. in use, and possibly 
an adjustable embroidered screen to protect the face 
from the direct heat of the fire. Other furnishings 
might include a writing table equipped with a pew- 
ter inkwell, quill pens, and blotting sand; a snuff- 
box; a small locked cabinet for valuables; and a fam- 
ily Bible in its sturdy box, together with a few other 
books such as a copy of Warner's Almanack, A Trea- 
tise on the Diseases of Virginia, and The Young 
Man's Best Companion. Looking glasses were a favor- 
ite wall decoration; the living room would possibly 
have had a facing pair on opposite walls. Pictures 
were less numerous than today, but there might be a 
few engravings hung on the walls of the living room 
and other rooms, together possibly with a map of Vir- 
ginia, a family portrait or two executed by some artist 
temporarily resident in Williamsburg, and, if the 


house were that of a wealthier person, a lew paintings 
imported from England or Italy. Matthew Pratt, itin- 
erant American "Portrait Painter, lately from Eng- 
land and Ireland, but last from New York," an- 
nounced in the Virginia Gazette in 1773 that he had 
"brought with him to Williamsb-nrg a small but very 
neat Collection of PAINTINGS, which are now exhibit- 
ing at Mrs. YORK'S, near the Capitol; among which 
are ... a very good Copy of Corregio's ST. JFROMK. 
. . . VKMJS and CUPID, the only 
Copy from an original Picture 
by Mr. West. ... A HOLY FAM- 
ILY. ... A copy of Guido's 


a Companion to the above . . . 
[and] a very fine FRUIT PIFCF." 
The dining room in its fur- 
nishings was much the same as 
that of today. Eood had to be carried to the house 
from an outside kitchen, however, and lor this reason 
trivets, used in rewanning hot. dishes, were kept at 
the fireplace. Other dining-room accessories often 
seen in the eighteenth century but rarely found 
today included pewter plates, sometimes with hot- 
water reservoirs to keep the food warm, napkin 
presses, knile boxes, tea caddies, spice chests in which 
the rarer luxuries were kept under lock and key, and 
horn tumblers, less expensive and more durable than 
glass. A comer cupboard might hold and display the 
fine porcelains, glass, pewter, and silver plate of the 
household, and a wine cellaret was indispensable. 

Cooking was almost always done in buildings sepa- 
rate from the main house to reduce the lire ha/ard, to 
keep odors and excess heat from the house, and to 
segregate the slave kitchen help. The character of 
these kitchens was far different from those of today, 
because the food was cooked over an open flame in the 
great, fireplace or in an oven actually built into the 
side of the chimney. Cooking over an open fire re- 
quired cranes and spits, together with skillets and 
other cooking utensils with long handles. Kitchen 
equipment included many ingenious devices, such as 
automatic spits, toasters, reflector ovens, waffle irons, 
coffee grinders, roasters, and mixers, which were the 
forerunners of twentieth-century appliances. Utensils 
were of wood, pewter, brass, copper, and bell metal, 
as well as of iron and tin. Candle molds, butter 
churns, wine presses, and sausage machines were cus- 

tomary kitchen and service equipment. Each large 
house had an outside dairy, and a smokehouse lor the 
curing of meat. 

1 he bedchamber contained one or more four- 
poster canopied beds, with draw curtains to keep out 
draughts. A low trundle bed on casters occasionally 
stood beside the master bed and could be rolled 
under it when not in use. Bedding usually consisted 
of leather or flock mattresses, quilts, blankets, and 
sometimes hemp, canvas, or linen sheets. Closets, an 
innovation of the eighteenth century, were usually 
inadequate; large paneled wardrobes or presses, high 

Early English silver epergnc and candlesticks, with 
built-in coiner cabinet, dining room of the George 
Wythc House. 

boys, low boys, chest-on-chcsts, and trunks had to be 

Bed warmers, foot warmers, bra/.iers, and other 
supplementary heating devices were found in all 
houses, and cast iron backs were used in fireplace's to 

C L O N I A L W I L L I A M S B U R G 

protect the brick from the heat. These fire backs, orig- 
inally a utilitarian feature, became objects lor dec- 
orative treatment and were ornamented with coats- 
of-arms, Biblical themes, and other subjects. The 
chicl source of lighting was the candle, made both of 
the wax of the bay berry and of tallow. Chandeliers, 
sconces (with silver or mirror reflectors), candelabra, 
and individual candlesticks were provided to hold 
them. Hurricane shades of glass were used to shield 
the candle flame from draughts. 

Illumination was far 
from adequate by today's 
standards; the Palace, even 
when fully candle-lit for 
a splendid ball or banquet, 
would have appeared dim- 
ly lighted to a twentieth- 
century spectator. Philip 
Fithian, writing in his 
journal of a sumptuous 
dinner at Nomiui Hall, re- 
marked that "The room 
looked luminous and 
splendid; lour very large 
candles burning on the 
table where we supp'd, 

three others in different parts of the Room." Hetty 
lamps and similar devices burning oil and fat were 
apparently seldom used in Virginia. A more primi- 
tive and cheaper source of light than candles were 
rushes dipped in scalding fat or grease. One ingenious 
practice of the time was to whitewash the cheeks and 
backs of fireplaces to reflect the' light, of the fire and 
aid in the illumination of the room. This was espe- 
cially effective when pine knots, which produce a 
brilliant flame, were burned. 


In furnishing Exhibition Buildings, Colonial \Vil- 
liamsburg has been guided by documentary evidence 

Hurricane Candle Shade. 

as well as by close study of eighteenth-century fur- 
nishings and accessories. Inventories have been in- 
valuable, especially at the Raleigh Tavern and the 
Palace. Public records, diaries, and correspondence 
have also revealed clues. Since original pieces speci- 
fied in documents were rarely available, antiques 
similar to them were substituted, or, in exceptional 
cases, reproductions were authori/cd. 

At the Capitol much of the required furniture was 
of such a type or was needed in such quantities that 
antique equivalents could not be obtained. Authen- 
tic- reproductions we're therefore made to represent 
the pieces originally in the building. Many antique 
pieces were also used, however, and the speaker's 
chair in the House of Burgesses is the very chair 
which stood in this hall in the eighteenth century. 
Most of the paintings and all the books are antique. 

The furnishings in the- Palace are predominantly 
Knglish, representing the various fashions found in 
the building during its existence. They are antique 
throughout except lor two of the three magnificent 
crystal chandeliers in the Ballroom, which had to be 
specially reproduced. The search for authentic pieces, 
which still continues, has often been prolonged and 
far-reaching. It is usually successful, however; for ex- 
ample-, an eighteenth-century Irish Waterford chan- 
delier for the Supper Room was finally located in 
Canton, China. 

In the* house of George \Vythc, a native Virginian, 
antiques of American origin predominate as con- 
trasted with the Knglish pieces found in the govern- 
or's home'. No inventory of the \Vythe House* exists, 
so that, those of comparable houses were followed. 
Styles of the late eighteenth century are here mingled 
with earlier pieces. Although no independent furni- 
ture forms were developed in Virginia and the pieces 
show a direct relationship to Knglish prototypes, 
many of them have been modified by the colonial 


The following recipe is written on the flyleaf of a Bible that belonged to Colonel 
William By id of West over. 

To cat ye Ham in Perfection steep it in Half Milk mid half water for Thirty-six 
flours, and then having brought the Water to a noil put ye Haw therein and let 
it Simmer, not boil, for j or 5 Hours according to size of ye Ham for Simmering 
brings ye Salt out and boiling drives it in. 

V ;.-. . :;,= i;: : : : 'iSiO -.f-'fU; l l!Wi|' Jttt-ikiMif-^ff^'ff'S^K. , i'Sf :*'! S'fl: . i 

The Gardens of Williamsburg 

"Let there be adjoyning the House a conven- 
ient Garden, it being tin*, purest of human 
pleasures, and a great refreshment to the spirit 
of man, without which Buildings are but gross 
Handy-works. . . "Primatl 

MOST OF THK original colonial gardens of Williamsburg had disappeared be- 
fore their restoration was begun. Portions of old walks, fences, walls, rem- 
nants of boxwood hedges, some outbuildings, and other evidences of old gardens, 
however, still existed. These, along with listings of plant materials preserved in 
diaries, letters, and other records, served as a basis for restoring (he gardens. 

Eighteenth-century gardens in Williamsburg were formal in treatment and, 
since they were designed as an integral part of the original plot plan, may be 
looked upon as architectural in character. The plan ol the grounds, or place lay- 
out, was carefully considered from the beginning, and its various features the 
outbuildings, gardens, and connecting walks were brought into a relationship 
with the house that was both satisfying aesthetically and sound from the stand- 
point of use. The dependencies were never directly connected with the house in 
this region where the winters were mild, and the warm, humid summers made 
ample circulation of air important. Typically, a kitchen, dairy, smokehouse, and 
well were placed about an outside working area or service court paved with 




brick or marl, at tfie side or rear of the main house. 
A stable and coach house with an area for main- 
tenance work and a paddock were geneially located 
at the back of the lot. 

When the main house was situated on a street 
corner, a special type of plan layout was occasionally 
developed. Here, since access to the property could 
be gained from the side street, stables, storehouses, 
and other service buildings were placed along this 
street. Thus the house with its dependencies took 
the form of an L. 

Between the various outbuildings or 
beside them were placed the kite hen and 
pleasure gardens. At times they were 
combined in one planted area of flowers, 
vegetables, and fruit, but more often they 
were kept separate. 

The individual designs for the pleas- 
ure garden were carefully adapted to the 
topogiaphy, size, and shape of the area 
and were either cential or axial in type. 
In the central plan, areas of planting - 
square or rec tangular, wedge-shaped, 
round, or oval beds -were grouped about 
or ladiated from a cential point. The 
axial plan usually featured a long cential 
walk intersected by cross walks which 
divided the garden into a series of squares 
or rectangles. 

Garden walks were usually of buck 01 
mail, but other sin facing, such as washed 
pebbles, gravel, broken pieces of stone, 
oyster and scallop shells, and brickbats 
were common. As a general rule, early 
designers were practical in their arrange- 
ment of service walks, which weie laid to connect 
work areas in the most direct fashion, with tew devia- 
tions for the sake of design. In the pleasure areas, 
however, where balance and form took precedence, 
the coutraiy was true. 

Few indications of the existence of oin.unental 
garden features have been found in studying records 
and archaeological remains. The Palace gardens, 
however, did make relatively extensive use of elab- 
orate gates, decorative piers and termini, vases, steps, 
seats, arbors, garden houses, enclosing walls, and 
clairvoyees (openings affording a vista through high 
walls). The smaller gardens achieved interest, lor 


Prentis House Garden 
Plan. A typical ariange- 
meiit of planted area 
with house and out- 

the most part, through balanced outbuildings, walks, 
decorative fences, and seats. Furopean precedent in 
the use of stone or lead figures and fountains was ap- 
parently disregarded. 

Fences, so familiar in the Williamsburg scene today, 
were required by colonial law to be built around 
each lot. An act of the General Assembly of 1705. 
designed to protect the gardens from stray horses and 
cattle, required the owner of every halt-acre lot con- 
tiguous to Duke of Gloucester Street to "inclose 
the said lots, or halt acres, with a wall, 
pails, or post and rails, within six months 
i after the building, which the law re- 

| quires to be erected thereupon, shall be 

';' finished." The height of the fence was 

; set at four and one-hall feet. Another act, 

applying to the colony in general, per- 
:.Q ' ; v mined the substitution for the fence of 

'j ; "' a so-called "quick-set" hedge. Such 

r : J hedges, or "live fences," weie made b> 

1 V digging a ditch and planting a quick- 

#;. rowing shrub on the top of the soft 

* ! :\-. ;'.- ridge of eaith thrown up at the side. 

Brick walls with molded biick copings 
were, in the town itself, usii.illx confined 
to the enclosure of the grounds of public 
buildings. Post and tail fences and paling 
(picket fences) specified in the act be- 
came typical lor pii\ite gaidens, and 
fences of wattle (woven twigs) ueie also 
found. The "worm" 01 "snake" fence 
was frequently used to cue lose fields in 
and about Williamsburg; this was a 
fence without posts made of six- or 
eight-foot tails laid /ig/ag l.ishion with 
interlocking the familial "Virginia lail" 
which continued in common use until re 



placed by wire fencing near the end of the nineteenth 


Of the trees and shrubs grown in the colonial gar- 
dens, some were imported at various times and others 
were native to Virginia. Hedges of imported box 
wood were popular and widely used, not only because 
of their beauty but also because they grew slowly and 
required infrequent clipping. More rapidly growing 
shrubs needed constant attention to prevent them 

James Gait Cottage with the Cuslis-Maupin garden adjoining. 

from dogging the paths and overshadowing the ad- 
jacent beds. Holly hedges and trees were also found 
in the gardens of Willianisburg; although some of 
this holly was brought from England, it was trans- 
planted with diilicnliy and most of the old specimens 
are native. Records show that Knglish yew was 
brought to Virginia in the hope that, it would make 
satisfactory hedges, but the colonists found the cli- 
mate usually too dry to permit it to flourish. Both 
hawthorn and privet were imported and used in 
creating quick set hedges. 

Among flowering shrubs which in recent years 
grew extensively in Willianisburg, lorsythia has been 

removed from the restored area since it was found to 
have been introduced in the nineteenth century. The 
flowering quince ("japonica"), once removed for a 
like reason, is being reinstated; research established 
that it was introduced shortly before 1800. 

Of the trees seen by the visitor, perhaps the most 
striking is the paper mulberry with its complex of 
gnarled trunks and its pulpy outer shell. It. is a pop- 
ular misconception that these trees were used in the 
colonial silkworm industry; the silkworm was ac- 
tually reared on the true mulberry, the black and 
white. A number of true mulberry trees arc to be 
found in Willianisburg, one of the finest being the 


ancient gnarled tree which overhangs the cast wall 
of the Capitol. 

Prominent among ornamental trees used by gar- 
deners of the eighteenth century were the mimosa, 
with its fern-like leaf, and trees noted for the beauty 

and *Jm, 


pitb gretf Qxict 
Fnvir /tors * Mvmj* Tmuff#nl &** **f &**, 
ft if flint, *$ Or***e*f I in Qentttmtn'i <?*%*, M 
^y^ofvMbk Am* fy Tbo*M Cretfe, G*rk*t ft 
1tH CMMgt, in Wiffliambufg. 

of their flowers such as the dogwood, Southern mag 
nolia, red bud, and catalpa. 1 he crape myrtle was 
introduced from India shortly before 1800. Trees 
widely used and honored for their shade were the 
elm, sycamore, tulip poplar, and pecan. The Juniper 
Virginia na, commonly called red cedar, was tradition- 
ally used as a border along either side of plantation 
approaches, and avenues of these may still be seen 
throughout Virginia. Of these trees, the mimosa and 
crape myrtle were imported; the others were native 
to the region. 

Fruit trees were important in Williamsburg gar- 
dens. Governor Nicholson, in laying out the town in 
half acre lots, specified that each person should have 
sufficient ground for his house, his garden, and 
orchard. Fruit had been useful to the settlers of Vir- 
ginia from the outset. "Fruit growing in early colo- 
nial days," says S. \V. Fletcher, in A History o/ Fruit 
Growing in Virginia (1932), "was chiefly for the 
purpose of securing a supply of 'most excellent, and 
comfortable' drinks. . . . We have the word of Captain 
John Smith that 'few of the upper class planters 
drink any water.' " The first colonists found in abun- 
dance palatable small fruits such as grapes, the wild 
strawberry, huckleberries, gooseberries, blackberries, 
and raspberries. Of the tree fruits which the land 
afforded, the crab apple was small and bitter, the 
wild cherry practically worthless, the plums inferior 
in quality to European sorts, and, as for the per- 
simmon, Captain Smith wrote "if it be not ripe it 
will draw a man's mouth awrie, with much torment." 
There were no native pears or peaches, and these, 
together with the apple, quince, plum, cherry, apri- 
cot, and nectarine were introduced from Europe. 
In the eighteenth century, fruit was frequently used 

in making liquors wine, cider, perry (pear cider), 
peach brandy, and other fermented fruit juices. 

'Frees were of still more vital importance to Wil- 
liamsburg and the colonies as the source of the raw 
materials for building, cabinetmakiug, and the pro- 
duction of household utensils. Cedar, cypress, yellow 
pine, oak, elm, and beech were used in building, 
whereas walnut, the "cabinetmaker's wood," to- 
gether with pine, cherry, applewood, and holly for 
inlay work, were employed in furniture manufac- 
ture. Farm implements were fashioned of wood (oak, 
ash, and hickory), often to the complete exclusion of 
any metal, leather, or liber. Household manufacture 
of wooden ware achieved a high development, as a 
craft. Poplar, ash, and alder were used to create ob- 
jects of grace and endurance such as spoons, ladles, 
churns, buckets, trays, milk pails, and many other 
articles of domestic: use. 

In a day when chemical dyes were largely un- 
known, dyes for the coloring of cotton, linen, and 
wool were obtained directly from plant materials. 
The barks, roots, and leaves of trees as well as berries 
and flowers were sources of dye colors. Many varying 
shades of blue, for instance, were obtained from the 
indigo plant, and the madder vine gave a wide range 
of shades from turkey red to pink. Among the colors 
derived from barks were yellow and dark brown 
from the black walnut; golden brown from chestnut 
oak; green from hickory: black from willow; and gold 
from the black oak. The sumac berry yielded gray, 
and the petals of the poppy were a source of crimson. 

A sunk fence or "ha-ha," a common enclosure of 
plantations, so devised as not to interrupt the view 
toward river or countryside. 

These were but a few of the many colors made from 
plant materials in the eighteenth century. Certain of 
these dyes were produced in quantity and exported 
from the colony, whereas others, such as a black made 


from logwood and a reddish brown from bra/.ihvood, 
were derived from imported woods. Natural dyes are 
still made by native craftsmen in the highlands of 
southern Virginia and North Carolina and are con- 
sidered by many superior to more commonly used 
chemical colors. 


A Williainsburg garden which no longer exists but 
which was, nevertheless, one of the best known in 
Virginia, was that of Colonel John Cnstis, father-in- 
law of Martha Dandridge Cnslis, who became the 

"Quick-set" hedge, an en- 
closure made by digging a 
ditch and planting the 
mound thus produced with 
a quick-growing hedge. 

wife of George Washington. Custis, a Councilor of 
the colony, built a house with a large garden in \Vil- 
liamsbnrg when he found that his home at: Arlington 
on the Eastern Shore was too remote from the city. 
Me was an eager student of the ways of nature and a 
love) of all growing things; he labored for twenty 
years in his garden, furnishing it with all manner of 
plants, trees, and shrubs, many native to the new 
country and many imported from England and else- 

Cnslis apparently began his gardening venture in 
1717, because in a letter of that year to his merchants 
in England he wrote: "I have lately got. into 
the vein of gardening and have made a hand- 
some garden to my house; and desire you 
will lay out 15 [] for me in handsome 
striped hollys and yew but most hollys." A 
large proportion of his plant materials sue 
cumbed on the way to Williamsburg, and 
in later letters he complains bitterly about 
the lack of care used in their packing and 
the stupidity of ship captains who allowed 
them to die on the way: "The box) wood) for 
my garden was all rotten as dirt did not save 
one sprig; the gardener was either a fool or 
a knave and by his management never packed 
anything before to go beyond sea." 

There was an unlimited variety of fence 
and gate posts in Williamsburg. 

Sir John Randolph of Williamsburg was instru- 
mental in bringing Custis in touch with Peter Coll in- 
son of London, a wool draper whose hobby was 
gardening and whom years of experiment had made 
an expert botanist and naturalist. Collinson was 
deeply interested in the flora and fauna of the colo- 
nies and had become acquainted with several Amer- 
icans, including William Byrd of \Vestover, who sent 
him plants and seeds from their gardens. A feu 1 ex- 
tracts from letters written by Cnslis to Collinson in 
17^, give an idea of the plants exchanged and a 
glimpse into the Custis garden: "1 have planted the 
Pistac ions Nulls and I think I shall allmonds. 1 have 
allmond trees that thrive well, but they bloom so 
earl) that it is not once in a great many years but the 
frost kills the blossoms. ... 1 have planted the dates, 
but I doubt they are too lender to do we'll here. I 
have planted the seeds of the Cedar of Lebanon. . . . 
As for those peas you call Italian beans we call them 
black eyed Indian peas, and 1 make yearly hun- 
dreds of bushels of them and ship them to the West 

Among Collinson's American friends was John 
Bart ram of Pennsylvania, a farmer who became one 
of the country's greatest naturalists and whose gar- 
den on the Schuyikill near Philadelphia was one of 
America's first botanical gardens. Acting at the sug- 
gestion of Collinson, Bartram toured iUaryland and 
Virginia, stopping oft in Williamsburg to make the 
acquaintance of John Custis. Custis later wrote Col- 


linson of the visit ol the famous naturalist: "lie [Mr. 
liartram is (lie 1 inosi taking facetious man I c'veT met 
with and [1] never was so delighted with a stranger 
in all my lile. I have had a letter 
from him . . . with his kind oilers 
to send me some Dutch while cur 
rant hushes which would he very 
ae e eptablc." 

Thus Cuslis became ac(|uaiuled 
with liattram. and a triangular cor 
respondeiicc among three ol the 
greatest gardeners of the dav was 
begun. Two, (lollinson and liar- 
train, lelt beliind gardens which 
have become public properly and 
which are preserved in honor ol 
then crcatois. Ol the Custis garden 
nothing icmaius \vhich can with 
ceitaiuty be said to have been 
planted by his hand. However, near 
the Custis Kitchen, the only one of his buildings 
which still exists, there stands an old vcw tree which 
mav we'll be a survivor ol those' which he planted and 
tended with so much < arc 1 . 

tin Ri si OK A i io\ or tin <;.\km \s 

Plant materials other than tree's, bulbs, and a lew 
shrubs do not survive a century unless carelully 
tended. When trees and hedges Irom original plant- 
ings do survive, as in the case of ihe old boxwood of 
ihe finish F.v erai d garden, ihcv have pio\ed a val- 
uable aid in determining the- original design pattern 
of the garden. 

Archaeological studies, in the' course. 1 ol which 
known sites ol old gardens were -excavated and ex- 
amined, have been ol great assistance. 1 in restoration 
work, features ol the original landscape plan, such 
as remains ol outbuilding loundations. brick and 
marl walks, paved service areas, surlace drains, and 
old wall and fence. post lines, have often been uncov- 
ered. In main cases, walks lonnd several inches 
below the surlacc revealed the main garden axis, si/e 
and shape of planting areas, and the general lot lay- 

Additional information on the arrangement of 
gardens and outbuildings was found through research 
into old records such as insurance policies, which 
frequently included sketches ol the lots; descriptions 

in travel accounts and old letters; eighteenth-century 
maps of the town such as the Frenchman's Map; and 
nineteenth century photographs. Finally, study of 
surviving remains of gardens in the 
surrounding Tidewater region and 
of the 1 Sauthier plans of North Caro- 
lina towns of the eighteenth century 
has been of great assistance in de- 
termining detail design of the plant- 
ings as well as the general character 
ol the' garden designs. 


The ]\'-\the (ardeu 

Early in the cenimy hedges were 
squared and shrubs clipped into 
artificial shapes. 

The site 1 plan of the Ccorge 
Wythe House and outbuildings is 
an example' of an L-shaped scheme. 
Service structures and their sur- 
rounding yards have been placed 
the side street. Following traces revealed by 
excavation, a main axial walk with parallel side 
paths and a lawn terminating in a low mound and 
arbor have- been developed at the rear of the 1 house. 
lialaiK ing small out buildings accent the farther cor- 
ners ol the mall, much as the great North Carden ol 
the Palace is terminated by necessary house's (the 
eighteen! h-cent nrv pi iv v ). 

Fruit and kitchen gardens along one side 1 of the 
central mall balance the- service areas along the other. 
Vegetable and fi nit tree plantings arc- interwoven, 
and lig bushes have 1 been used along one side 1 of the 1 
garden. A small herb plot south of the main house- is 
enclosed with box hedges accented at the- corners by 
topiary specimens (shrubs clipped in various shapes). 

The llryan Garden 

The Bryan House- layout is typical of plans in 
which the pleasure garden is located at the side' of the 
house. I he plan follows the usual colonial pattern, 
with the* kite hen, smokehouse, and service area located 
at the- rear of the house and the- stable 1 yard with its 
paddock at the back of the 1 lot. The intervening space 
between kitchen area and stable yard has been de- 
veloped as a small kitchen garden, whose- lour plots 
would be of sufficient si/e to supply "sallois," herbs, 
and vegetables. 

The pleasure garden has been patterned alter 


The pattern of the Palace garden is as formal and elaborate as the plan of the Palace itself. 



examples illustrated in the Sauthier maps, in which 
a square or circular central design is often shown. 
In the Bryan garden, central and axial layouts have 
been combined, but from the street this garden 
appears axial, featuring a live oak, arch, and seat at 
the south. Along its minor cross axis the garden 
appears as a central type, with its square center and 
four topiary pieces the most conspicuous objects. 

The Palace Gardens 

The Palace layout is as formal and elaborate as 
the furnishings and architecture of the Palace itself; 
this was one of the earliest of the great formal gardens 
of Virginia, being preceded and rivaled in extent and 
elegance only by Governor Berkeley's garden at Green 
Spring. The influence of the Palace garden is evident 
in many plantation gardens. 

The forecourt design, with its four oval planting 
beds, stone walks, narrow entrance gate, and curved 
enclosing walls, is clearly indicated in the Bodleian 
Plate, an eighteenth-century copperplate discovered 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The service yard, 
at the rear of the west. Hanking building, contains the 
buildings necessary for the maintenance of a large 
household kitchen, scullery, salt and meat houses, 
smokehouse, laundry, and related outbuildings. This 
noisy, active area was placed as far away from the 
governor's living compartments as demands of service 
would permit. 

The boundaries of the Ballroom Garden wen? dis- 
covered by excavation of long-hidden wall founda- 
tions. The main building axis and foundations of the 

north gate set the line for the broad central walk. The 
position of the main cross walk, likewise, was fixed 
by the east and west gate foundations. The detail 
design of the diamond-shaped parterres (ornamental 
arrangements of beds or plots) was adapted from those 
shown on the Bodleian Plate. The lead vases were 
listed in Palace inventories. 

The North Garden continues at a slightly lower 
level on either side of the main central axis. This 
is planted in typical early eighteenth-century topiary, 
pleached arbors, and tulip beds so important in Dutch- 
influenced schemes. The architectural enclosure of 
brick walls with interspersed piers, the elegant iron- 
work of gates, grilles, and clairvoyces, the steps and 
decorative piers with lead vases, and the corner neces- 
sary houses, are all fundamental component features 
of the design. 

At the east of the Ballroom Garden is the plain 
parterre or tree-box garden, and at the west a box 
garden laid out in a quadrangle of squares and circles. 
This adjoins the Revolutionary burying ground, in 
which the bodies of 156 soldiers were found. 

To the north of the burying ground is a fruit garden 
enclosed by a brick wall, against which figs are 
espaliered. Nectarines are trained on wooden supports 
and the exotic pomegranate grows in the fruit garden. 
Behind the garden are the holly Ma/e, patterned after 
that at Hampton Court, England, and the Mount, a 
terraced mound of earth in the shape of a truncated 
pyramid, with a flight of steps leading to a platform 
at the top. Both the Ma/e and the Mount are late 
seventeenth-century landscape features. 


U"" I"*" nfli &; ' Wi. . 

The Restoration of an American Town 

"He who alters an old House is ty'd as a Trans- 
lator to the Original, and is confirid to the 
Fancy of the first Builder. Sucli a Man would 
be unwise to pull down a good old Building, 
perhaps to erect a worse new one!' 

Builder's Dictionary, 779 / 

THE RESTORATION of Colonial WilliaiTisburg 
represents the first attempt on a large scale to 
recover the physical form and atmosphere of an 
entire colonial town. This project has been under- 
taken with the conviction that our old buildings with 
their furniture and implements are the visual memo- 
rials of our early history "the scene and witness of 
human adventures and events." It was the realization 
that a wealth of historic fact and artistic value lay 
hidden in the venerable remains of Williamsburg 
which led to its restoration. 

Only recently has America come to recognize the 
cultural values in its past architecture, although his- 
toric buildings have always had their loyal protectors. 
Mount Vcrnon, Independence I lall, and the Old State 
House at Boston were early accepted as historic monu- 
ments, as well as many other significant buildings in 
all sections of the country. Inexperience or mis- 
directed enthusiasm sometimes led to faulty restora- 
tion work which caused even more damage to a build- 
ing than indifference or neglect; but gradually there 
has grown up a tradition of preserving the original 
expression as well as the actual physical structure of 

What has come to be called the restoration of 
ancient buildings owes something to the architect 
Thomas Ustick Walter, designer of the great dome 
of the National Capitol. Walter, who was perhaps 
America's first "restorer," was asked by a building 
committee to make dianges to the interior of old 
Christ Church in Philadelphia, in the year 1834. Be- 
fore accepting the commission, Walter remarked to 
the sponsors: "I have often looked with regret at the 

innovations on the purity of the architecture of Christ 
Church. The propriety of reducing the height of the 
ceiling and making it a flat surface has now been sug- 
gested. This would make the house easier to speak in, 
and it could be wanned with more facility; but this 
alteration would completely ruin the architecture of 
the building, and destroy all that dignity and eccle- 
siastical effect so completely attained in this venerable 

It was at almost this same time in 1838 that 
Bruton Parish Church in Williamsburg was con- 
siderably "renovated," and not with the whole-hearted 
approval of all parishioners. Miss Eli/abeth Gait of 
Williamsburg, who was visiting in Brooklyn at the 
time, wrote Dr. D. D. Gait in 1840 to inquire, "And 
do tell me, who have been the Goths and the Vandals 
who have modernized our dear abbay?" 

Since then, many organizations have been formed 
for the care of historic buildings and to arouse public 
interest in their behalf. Many of these are local or 
regional in character. The Mount Vcrnon Ladies' 
Association, founded in 1853, is an early example. 
This association acquired Mount Vcrnon in 1858 
from John Augustine Washington, Jr., who had tried 
without success to interest the United States Govern- 
ment in purchasing it as a national monument. In 
Virginia, the Association for the Preservation of Vir- 
ginia Antiquities has joined with state and local 
groups to protect historic sites. At Williamsburg, this 
society kept secure the foundations of the colonial 
Capitol, deeding them to its restorers when recon- 
struction was begun. The APVA, which has worked 
closely with the Williamsburg project from the start, 


C L O N I A L W I L L I A M S B U R G 

also owns the site of the Maga/inc, which is now 
leased to Colonial Williamsburg. 

Other societies worked on a national scale. The 
American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society 
was organ i/ed in 1895 and has pioneered in stimulat- 
ing interest in America's architectural past. Another 
example is the Committee on Preservation of Historic 
Monuments of the American Institute of Architects, 
established in 1909. One of the most recent organiza- 
tions formed on this nationwide basis is the National 
Council for the Preservation of Historic Sites and 
Buildings, founded in 19.17. 1 he object of the Council 
is "to further the preservation and interpretation, for 
the public benefit, of historic sites and buildings 
situated in the United States and its possessions and 
significant for American history and culture." The 
Federal Government has concerned itself more with 
the protection of historic sites on government-owned 
lands than with the preservation of buildings; the 
historic buildings, few in number, for which it has 
assumed responsibility have been placed under the 
administration of the National Park Service. Farly 
in 1931, tnc tatter initiated a significant work with 

the establishment of a Historic American Buildings 
Survey. During the continuance of this Survey, the 
purpose of which was the recording of historic struc- 
tures, measured drawings of some 1,400 buildings 
and about 6,500 photographs of 1,600 subjects were 
made. These are now on file in the Library of Con- 

Throughout America, attempts to restore or pre- 
serve significant buildings and historic sites have 
become more frequent in recent years. Two of the 
best-known restoration projects were carried out in 
Virginia at Monticello and Stratford. Both are con- 
temporary with the restoration of Colonial Wil- 
liamsburg. Monticello was purchased by the Thomas 
Jefferson Foundation in 1929 and restored soon after- 
wards. Stratford Hall, in Westmoreland County, 
Virginia, home of Robert F. Lee, was a larger under- 
taking. This property was conveyed to the Robert F. 
Lee Memorial Foundation in July, 1929. It was re- 
stored under the direction of Fiske Kimball, architect, 
in 1932- 19-55. The work done included the repair and 
preservation of the mansion and its dependencies. 
The gardens and orchards were also restored. 

^P^SI^I^ 7 -/- : ^ 
^ ." ^.o f ^^ 
^^Mjf ; ^^ -1 

fiJ ' J1 ' "' 

Early drawings of Williamsburg, early maps, inventories, land grants, newspaper advertise- 
ments, records of loss by fire, early insurance policies, all were considered in the process of 
restoration. The engraving above was made at some time prior to 1875. 




The recovery of Colonial Williamsburg was under- 
taken in fulfillment of a plan proposed to Mr. Rocke- 
feller by Dr. W. A. R. Goodwin, rector of Bruton 
Parish. This plan was almost prohibitively ambi- 
tious. Its realization was made possible only by vast 
expenditures and the continuing and undiminishecl 
interest of the donor. The first steps in acquiring 
houses and lots and in developing the initial organiza- 
tion were taken in 1927. 

The purpose of Colonial Williamsburg at the out- 
set was to recover the significant portions of a historic 
and important city of America's colonial period. This 
purpose, always flexible in nature, has come to have a 
much broader significance. Not only are the buildings 
the subject for study, but also the life and thought 
associated with them. A new emphasis is placed upon 
the significance of the painstaking craftsman. In addi- 
tion, a program of interpretation has been developed, 
based on the recognition of Williamsburg's impor- 
tance in the formulation of American political 
thought, in education, commerce, fashions of the New 
World, and as a seat of religion. 

The program, as it has been carried out, involved 
more than the repair and restoration of existing 
colonial homes and buildings. Many buildings, in- 
cluding the immensely significant Capitol and Palace, 
had disappeared, and had to be completely recon- 
structed on their original foundations. Authentic 
furnishings and decorations were required. Gardens 
had to be replanted. 

To accomplish this, it was necessary to purchase or 
control virtually all the area that formerly comprised 
the colonial city. A vast staff of experts was employed: 
architects, archaeologists, landscape gardeners, build- 
ers, town planners, historians, lawyers, engineers, and 
many others. The architectural firm of Perry, Shaw 
and Hepburn was retained in 1927 to have direct 
charge of the architectural development and the man- 
ner of restoration. Their valued service's continued 
until 1934 when a local architectural staff, headed by 
A. Edwin Kcndrew and Singleton P. Moorehead, was 
formed at Williamsburg to carry to completion the 
original restoration program and to maintain the 
buildings already erected and their gardens. Perry, 
Shaw and Hepburn still serve in an advisory capacity, 
as does the landscape architect, Arthur A. Shurcliff. 

The landscape restoration and city planning for the 
project at the outset were carried on under Mr. Shur- 
cliff's dim tion. 

For the first two years the chict problem was that 
of research. Archives in America and Kurope were 

Courtcn}/ of the Mnsitarhnt>i.tts Hixtormil Society 

Measured drawing of the Palace, made by Thomas 
Jefferson, probably in 1779. This drawing was of 
great value to the architects in developing an 
authentic plan arrangement and in rebuilding the 

searched for any record or reference that would aid 
the restoration work to follow. Supplementary archae- 
ological evidence was sought. During this research 
stage, a number of extraordinary discoveries were 
made. In the Bodleian Library at Oxford, for exam- 
ple, an eighteenth-century copperplate was found on 
which were shown, as carefully engraved illustrations, 
the first Gapitol at Williamsburg, the Governor's 
Palace, and the buildings of the College of William 
and Mary. This engraved plate was of great assistance 
to the architects in composing their designs, and is 
now on exhibition in Williamsburg. Two drawings 




the the the 

of and in 

century appearance* 

of the at the 

Tavern, in This 

an of the 

Archibald Blair's Storehouse was stripped of its 
additions and restored. 


In Ilie nf the Powell-IIalhtm the 

to the structure 
woodwork was replaced. 

/i of the 

House* The house* 

with ihe aid 0! drawing. 

An old photograph of the Scrivener House gave 
a clear picture of its early architectural appearance. 



l)y Thomas Jefferson were added to the pool ol 
relciencc mateiial. One was a Male drawing ol the 
Governor's Palace uhich was obtained horn the col- 
lections ol the Massachusetts Histoiical Society and 
which snppoitecl the arc -lueologic al basis lor the re- 
eonsti uc t ion of the plan of the Palace; the second, 
located at the 1 Huntington Libiaiy in California, \vas 
acarelully draun pioj)osal lor the enlargement ol the 
main collegiate buildings al William and Marv. Some 
yeats pre\ iouslv, a mi nut civ de-tailed map ol Williams- 
burg, probably draun in 17812 and attributed to an 


prompted by the enthusiasm of draftsmen in the cm, 
ploy ol the architects. To co-ordinate and intciprel 
the architectural and historical material, a separate 
Department of Research and Record was loimed. 
When the scope of work began to include building 
interiors and finnishings, the assistance of specialists 
in inteiior architecture was called upon bv the aichi- 
tects. Mis. Susan Higginson Nash diiee led the lurnish- 
ing of the Inhibition Buildings, a work latei canted 
on bv James L. Cogar. Curator of Colonial Williams- 
burg h om i<);; i to i <) jS. 

. , -^r -.. ; 

i "V - %,; ; 

, ; ^^**J^- 

m 1A3 ** ^ 4 

ft * 

The Frenchman's Maf* is so called because it is believed to have been made by a French Army map makri in 
1781*. It was an invaluable aid in the restoration ol Williamsburq;, since it shows with accuracy the plan ot the 
town and location of buildings and their property lines, existing alter the Revolution. 

anon\inous French engineer, had been found in an 
antique shop at Norlolk and presented to the College. 
This map, uhich came to be knoun as the "Fiench- 
man's Map," pro\ ed an imaluahle aid, since it shows 
the- position ol buildings ol the' town during the 
Revolutionary petiod. Addition, il militarx maps and 
surxcvs. prc-paied by Fiench, Fnglish, and olhc'r at my 
olluc'is dining their sojourn in Williamsbuig al the 
time- ol ihe Revolution, were helplul. 

The- supc i r\ising architects at lust \vere hilly occu- 
pied with the design ol buildings to be reconstituted 
and restored and in making measured drawings and 
photogiaphs ol plantation houses and gaidens ol the 1 
surrounding Virginia area. Much ol the held work was 

During the fust lull work year ( 19128), a committee 
ol advisory aichilects, consisting ol eight men with 
special competence in colonial an hitec line, was 
appointed. Although advisory in natuie, this group 
passed on all plans and designs, as well as on the- use 1 
ol precedent. In the course of their pei iodic meetings, 
a code of lesloiation piinciples and pioceduie was 
compiled which Ins seived the architects as a guide: 

1. All buildings or parts ol buildings in which the 
colonial nadition peisists should he iclamcd iiicspcclive 
ol theii actual date-. 

2. Where the- classical tradition pc-isists in buildings 
or pails of buildings, discietiou should be exc-icisecl 
bcloic ck'st roving them. 


H. Within the "restoration area" all work which no 
longer represents colonial or classical tradition should be 
demolished or removed. 

4. Old buildings in Williamsburg outside the "restora- 
tion area" wherever possible should be left and if possible 
preserved on their original sites and restored there rather 
than moved within the "area." 

5. No surviving old work should be rebuilt for struc- 
tural reasons if any reasonable additional trouble and 
expense would suffice to preserve it. 

6. There should be held in the minds of the architects 
in the treatment of buildings the distinction between 
Preservation where the object is scrupulous retention of 
the surviving work by ordinary repair, and Restoration 
where the object is the recovery of the old form by new 
work; the laigcst practicable number of buildings should 
be preserved rather than restored. 

7. Such preservation and restoration work requires a 
slower pace than ordinary modern construction work, and 
a supeiior result should be preferred to more rapid 

8. In restoration the use of old materials and details of 
the period and character, propel ly recorded, is com- 
mendable when they can be secured. 

9. In the securing of old materials there should be no 
demolition or removal of buildings 

where there seems a reasonable prospect 
that they will persist intact on their 
original sites. 

10. Where new materials must be 
used, they should be of a character ap- 
proximating the old as closely as pos- 
sible, but no attempt should be made to 
"antique" them by theatrical means. 

To put these procedures into prac- 
tice was often difficult. It is hard to 
tamper with an old building without 
destroying the attraction acquired by 
age. At the same time it is an ac- 
cepted principle that parts must be 
repaired and replacements made of known original 
details, such as windows and their sills or mold- 
ings of which fragments have been discovered. Re- 
pairs and cleaning-up add to the worth of an old 
building when these are done in a workmanlike man- 
ner that is obviously protective. "The best repair," ac- 
cording to Philip Webb, founder of England's Soci- 
ety for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings, "is a 
sort of building surgery which aims at conservation." 


In Williamsburg the restoration of a building is 
undertaken according to well-established procedure. 

Drawing of the Capitol 
Bodleian Plate. 

The house to be restored is first examined under the 
direction of architects and draftsmen familiar with 
colonial building construction and design. To pre- 
pare the house for this preliminary study, the build- 
ing is cleared of all vines; near-by shrubbery is re- 
moved. In some cases, trees must also be uprooted. 
Grass around the foundation is cut back and con- 
venient access made to all walls. Where necessary, 
walls in danger of collapse are shored up; inside 
floors are given support. Debris is removed from the 
house and all floors made "broom clean." 

Measurements are then made of the interior and 
exterior of the house, including floor heights from 
basement to roof, and the relationship of floor heights 
to the outside grade. Sketches with measurements are 
drawn of walls, brickwork, floors, partitions, orna- 
mentation, stairs, mantels, and windows and doors 
along with their framing. Wall surfaces are examined 
and special attention is given any evidence of changes 
or relathing. Layers of paint are recorded with actual 
color samples. In the study of the foundation a record 
is kept, of any deterioration, rotted 
sills, closed windows, and parts added 
or removed. Photographs, now in- 
cluding motion pictures, are period- 
ically made of the restoration process 
to serve as a field record. 

On most sites, archaeological exca- 
vations arc carried out in a search for 
further evidence of the nature of the 
structure and its date. Diggers probe 
buried foundations, older wall foot- 
ings, brick or marl garden paths, and 
drainage ditches. The soil is sifted 
for fragments of tile, brick, pottery, 
metalwork, glass, stone, and other artifacts that may 
shed a possible light on the form or use of the 

Sometimes it is necessary to strip a part of the facing 
of the house down to the framing, in order to observe 
changes and examine its physical condition. This 
process of stripping has always been clone with great 
caution and only where imperative. Old flooring and 
original window frames, even when partly rotted, are 
left alone. Rather than undertake a drastic replace- 
ment of the whole, repairs are made on whatever parts 
are splintered or decayed. Weather board ing in bad 
condition is extremely difficult to put in a state of 




sound repair. In some instances the existing weather- 
boarding, even though recent, is preferred to the com- 
plete smoothness of new siding. 

When first-hand scrutiny of the house is completed, 
scale drawings of the structure arc made. Modern 

The Palace floor plan was revealed by painstaking 
excavation at the site. The completeness of the plan 
is shown by the drawing and photograph at the left, 
with original existing walls indicated in solid black 
in the drawing. The photograph above shows paving 
both of Purbeck marble and of brick. 

additions are removed. Old sash details replace the 
modern sash found in place. The original cornice is 
restored, perhaps by following the profile of parts 
concealed beneath an added porch. Foundations arc 
underpinned, and sills and window framings repaired. 

In the meantime, research assistants have pains- 
takingly gathered existing data on the history of the 
house, its owners or tenants, its use, and possibly even 
its appearance and the materials of which it was con- 
structed. This information is derived from county 
records, town maps, abstracts of title, wills, inven- 
tories, and even advertisements from the local Vir- 
ginia Gazette. 

After this preliminary research and investigation 
is completed, work is begun. Of course, all of the 
missing evidence is rarely discovered: the age of a 
building or its additions is elusive, and the problem 
of replacing missing parts is often difficult. 

The techniques for preserving, restoring, or recon- 
structing the buildings of Colonial Williamslmrg have 
been developed through experience. New techniques 
are constantly being evolved. But the methods used 
for this work are always subordinate to the spirit of 
the whole undertaking an attempt to recapture with 
authenticity the environment as well as the physical 
form of a small American town of two centuries ago. 

The illustrations that follow: When looking at the plates, it is suggested that the reader 
imagine himself making a photographic tour of the town. Viewed as a consecutive series, 
rather than as isolated shots, the photographs should give something of the effect of a 
film and serve as preparation for seeing the town, as a helpful accompaniment to a walking 
tour and as an accurate record of what has been seen in Willuimsburg. In general, more 
space has been allotted to the main buildings than to the individual houses; it is reasonable 
that buildings as important as the Palace and the Capitol be shown with especial thoroughness. 
Shown above are roofs of outbuildings as seen from the Palace. 



One approaches the Governor's Palace 
from Duke of Gloucester Street by way 
of a stately avenue bordered by catalpa 
trees. During the times of the royal 
governors, displays of fireworks were 
on occasion held here and in 1776 it 
was used as a parade ground. 

The Governor's House, ironically 
called the "Palace" because of the funds 
lavished upon its construction, was "a 
magnificent Structure, built at publick 
Expence, finished and beautified with 
Gates, fine Gardens, Offices, Walks, a 
fine Canal, Orchards, &c . . . by the 
ingenious Contrivance of the most 
accomplished Colonel Spotswood." 

Palace in colonial days 
was the scene of splendid 
social gatherings. At the 
yearly celebrations of the 
king's birthday, for example, 
it is said to have presented an 
appearance equalled and sur- 
passed only by the Court of 
England. Inventories of the 
governors give ample evi- 
dence of the elaborateness of 
the Palace furnishings. In ad- 
dition to furniture provided 
by the colony, the "standing 
furniture" of the Palace, each 
governor brought a large col- 
lection of his own. The Palace 
furniture ranged in character 
from the "newest fashion" of 
Governors Botetourt and 
Dunmore, to some items 
characterized by observers as 
"old fashion'd." 

At right, Supper Room, show- 
ing Chinese influence. Below, 
left, Waterford chandelier of 
same room. Below, right, 
pu//le, "The Kings and 
Queens of England." 

Tfc-e Little Dining Room, 
used* by the governor and his 
family. About the mahogany 
Chippendale table is a partic- 
ularly fine set of Queen Anne 
chairs with original needle- 
work seats. The tea set on the 
mantel is Whieldon agate- 
ware, and the bowl on the 
table is Lowestoft China. 

Below, right, detail of mantel 
of Little Dining Room, and 
left, detail of mantel of Bed- 
chamber over Parlor. 

Opposite page, the Parlor. On 
the tripod table is a Worces- 
ter tea and coffee service, and 
to the left of this a silver tea- 
kettle made in London 
1747. On the floor is an 
original needlepoint rug of 
the eighteenth century. 

Fleming Brown, "major-domo" of the Palace, whose cheerful philosophy pervades the Palace and is felt 
by every visitor. Fleming has served Colonial Williamsburg since 1934. 



George Wythe, eminent as a lawyer, was 
better known as the first professor of law in 
America than as a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. The youthful JelFerson fre- 
quently sat at his table, along with other 
students of the college, and learned lessons in 
the rights of man. 

The house was large for Williamsburg but 
strikingly austere in its balanced architecture. 
Its design is credited to Richard Taliaferro, 
Wythe's father-in-law. The house plan is the 
"center hall" type, two rooms deep. Its gardens 
and outbuildings suggest, in miniature, the 
arrangement of a small plantation. 


of the lute 

It was a IKK!," the fit 

Its top a The at the 

is a of the 


of tlie 

The are The at 

the used to an 

The of 

is si t lie of a 


cm in Is as an 

to the a fire in 1911, in the 

of the in 

Bruton Church 
(opposite page). 



The Magazine was built in 1715 to protect the arms, gunpowder, and ammunition of the colony. Lord Dunmore's secret 
removal of the powder the (lay alter the battle of Lexington caused the first assembling of an armed force in Virginia 
in what became the American Revolution. 

Mortars and gunpowder in barrels were stored 
on the ground floor of the Magazine (left) and 
the gunsmith had a shop in the front. To protect 
the Magazine, which was considered "much 
exposed," a high brick wall was built around it 
and, near by, a Guard House. 

The Luchvell-Paradise House is thought to have been built about 1717 by Philip Ludwell II "of 
Greenspring in Virginia." It is popularly associated with the name of his granddaughter, Lucy, 
whose eccentric conduct startled Williamsburg society. 

The restored house is devoted to the exhibition of a collection of American 
Folk Art, the gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. This, a fine collection 
of native American art, consists of paintings and sculpture by craftsmen 
and amateurs of the late 
eighteenth and early nine- 
teenth centuries, whose 
work is known as "folk art" 
because it was made by 
everyday people for their 
own use and enjoyment. 

Above, "Girl in Garden," oil painting by Antony 
Drexel, about 1830. At right, "Indian on Horse- 
back," a weathervane of wood and iron. 


At this tavern the leading patriots of 
Virginia are recorded to have gathered, 
before the Revolution and afterward, in- 
cluding George Washington, Patrick 
Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Wythe, 
Peyton Randolph, George Mason. 

Termed "the second capitol of the col- 
ony" because lawmakers convened here on 
several occasions after the Assembly was 
dissolved by an irate governor, in 1769 it 
was the scene for discussion and formula- 
tion of the non-importation agreement. In 
1774, an influential group of patriots met 
at the Raleigh to issue the call for the First 
Con tinenta I Congress. 

Opposite page, the tap- 
room of the Raleigh. 

Stairway of the Raleigh Tavern. "One glass Lanthorn at the stair foot" was listed in a 1771 inventory of 
this tavern. The clock is an original of the eighteenth century. 


T7w was one of the 

of Of two 

cii this iic, the first 

for At 

General Court of the Capitol, above. This 
paneled room was set apart for the use 
of the General Court; across the hall was 
the oilicc of the Secretary of the Colony. 

Less imposing in architecture was the 
House of Burgesses, said to be similar 
in its appearance to the House of Com- 
mons of the mother country. The House 
of Burgesses, the Council, and the General 
Court of the Virginia colony met at the 
Capitol from 1704 to 1776. 


the flag 
at Ac 

far the 


scribed ai **a 


to lie 




** V\r >"'** : *j^"''. : 1J*. 

;s9J&s>i '*' -'^-v,, -' 

._. ., _ ,. r , 

i'^,^^sA^ :... f : .: '*: :;. ^ssf!^':*Z.iff.^ci*tf 

,. ; *,. \ '1 T* ^%-^ 

; " W' 

At mid-century, Williamsburg is spoken of as offering an "agreeable residence." Most of the houses were 
of modest size, commonly a story and a half in height, with steep gabled roofs. These dwellings were gen- 
erally framed with wood, "cased with feather-edged Plank, painted with white Lead and Oil, covered with 
Shingles." The illustration is of the Bracken House. 


Pitt-Dixoii Htmse, one of the many modest dwellings on the shaded Duke of Gloucester Street near the Capitol. 



The gambrel roof became ex- 
tremely popular in Williamsburg. 
Here are shown the Lightfoot 
House, at left; the Powell-Hallam 
House, below left; and, below 
right, the Orrell House. These 
houses are similar in their common 
possession of a side hallway, corner 
fireplaces with chimneys contained 
within the outside walls, and con- 
struction of wood frame, faced 
with weatherboards, 

Opposite fMge. The upper illustra- 
tion shows the Waters-Coleman 
House, with an exceptionally fine 
pair of brick chimneys. Sloped-roof 
closets of brick occur at each end 
of the front. This, and the Moody 
House, lower left, and the Travis 
House, lower right, have long slop- 
ing roofs at rear. 


Its *it the the 



In early Virginia 

The (left) at the 

of the i he of John 

Jr., a to the (in- 

stitutional and a of 

the of the 

Tin* of the 

of a hallway 

a on It 

and a 

The on the 

the of the John 


the in 



Kitchens were placed away from the house 
as a protection from the annoying heat of 
cookery. Here are shown: i. the Kerr 
Kitchen; 2. the John Blair Kitchen; 3. the 
Ludwell-Paradise Kitchen; 4. the Tulia- 
ferro-Coie Kitchen; 5. the Bryan Kitchen. 

7 8 


View of roofs of the Archi- 
bald Blair outbuildings at 

Below, left, Wythc House 
outbuildings. The coach 
house of the Ludwell- Para- 
dise House is shown below 


Mary Stitli Forge, above, closely 
related to an enclosing yard. 

Allen-Byrd House. This, at one 
time, was the town house of 
William Byrd HI and contained 
the famed family library con- 
sisting of "near four thousand 
volumes." Surrounding the 
house were extensive gardens 
including "beautiful crape myr- 
tles and pomegranate bushes." 

St. George Tucker House, one of the few large houses of the town. Soon after the Revolution it became the 
home of St. George Tucker, second professor of law at the College of William and Mary. 


The Semple House has a unique two-story cemer pavmuu * Balanced wings. 

y* ' ; i r : [I-. , ( ^ - yr { / ^''i^nf^^TO^ 

The older part of the Coke- 
Garrett House was erected 
prior to the Revolution. 
The goldsmith, John Coke, 
lived in it at one time. Its 
fine west staircase, shown 
above, is in what was popu- 
larly known as the Chinese 
Chippendale manner. 



was at CHIC end oC the 

It the 



on old 


in the 


Jam** Anderson House is most notable for its associations with George 
Washington, a frequent visitor to Williamsburg. On November 5, 1768, 
he wrote in his diary, "Dined at Mrs. Campbell's, where 1 had spent all my 
Evenings since I came to Town/' Mrs. Christ ianna Campbell kept this house 
as a tavern for a short time. The house has been reconstructed. 

The Deane House, above, 
situated on the Palace 
Green, was for a while the 
home of Elkanah Deane, 
coach maker, formerly of 

The Carter-Saunders 
House, at left, was the 
town house of Robert Car- 
ter of Nomini Hall. It was 
given special prominence 
by its location next door to 
the Palace and for a brief 
period served as the house 
of the Royal Governor. 

The Peyton Randolph House, of distinguished architectural simplicity, was at one time the home 
of Peyton Randolph, first president of the Continental Congress; it has been identified as the 
headquarters of General Rochambeau in 1781; General Lafayette was entertained here on the 
occasion of his visit to Williaimburg in 1824. 

Josiah Chowning's 
Tavern, built on the 
site of an early inn. 


Fences were a concern of the inhabitants of Williamsburg almost immediately following 
the laying out of the streets and town by Francis Nicholson, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. 
In 1705 persons building on the Duke of Gloucester Street were asked to "inclose the said lots 
. . . with a wall, pails, or post and rails, within six months after the building . . . shall be 
finished," The enclosure by fences was required to keep stray cattle from destroying the 

The "palisade fence" with "pickets" was most common. A second kind of fence was made of 
posts and rails. Even the snake fence, native to this colony, was probably used to enclose 
near-by fields and is associated with the day when timber was still abundant. It was termed 
the "tie plus ultra" of fences, in later days called (he Virginia rail fence. It required no posts 
but an abundance of split rails. It extended in zigzag lines in sublime disregard of the waste 
of land occupied by its wanderings. It is probable that a few of these fences were built here. 
Some owners of lots chose to enclose their houses and gardens by what was termed a "quick- 
set" hedge, planted on a mound thrown to one side by digging a ditch as a border. 

Above, St. George Tucker House and 
garden enclosed by a picket fence. 

Photograph at left, fences and yards 
near Raleigh Tavern. 



The of and by in is, 

Harvard* the in the It was an set in 

the of an 

of Its "the 

of the 01 the of for the 

am! the of the The i , The 

of an 01 the Of this 

in the of the the ** *tii 

by all the and 9. The with the 

of it. This, the in 

was in ami and 3. The 

the of the 4. The 

in 5. The of the & 0! the 


In Williamsburg during co- 
lonial days there were skilled 
craftsmen in many trades. 
Sixteen cabinetmakers and 
upholsterers were engaged 
from time to time in the mak- 
ing and repair of furniture. 
Coachmakers, gold and silver- 
smiths, gunsmiths, mantua 
makers, hairdressers, carpen- 
ters, joiners, masons, black- 
smiths, and farriers, all ap- 
pear in York County records 
as having followed their 
trades in the town or locality. 
Extracts from the Virginia 
(Haze tie give an overall pic- 
ture of local arts and crafts. 
November 28, 1745: "Richard 
Caution, Upholster, from 
London, gives this public 
Notice to all Gentlemen, 
Ladies, and others, That he 
doth all Sorts of Upholsterer's 
Work, after the newest Fash- 
ion. ... at reasonable Rates. 
. . ." July 25, 1766: "B. Buck' 
trout, Cabinet Maker, from 
London, on the main street 
near the Capitol in Williams- 
hurg, makes all sorts of cab- 
inet work, either plain or 
ornamental 111 the neatest and 
newest fashions. . . ." Decem- 
ber 28, 1769: "Joseph Kidd. 
. . . hangs rooms with paper 
or damask, stuffs sophas, 
couches, and chairs . . . makes 
all sorts of bed furniture, 
window curtains . . . and fits 
carpets to any room. . . ." 

Photographs at left show a 
craftsman today using tools of 
two centuries ago. 


011 He It to the 

of a Rut hell mil* 

a M. 

"in the 

taste," It Is the Its 

is at 

arc* of 

of Be 

The Wigmaker's Shop (Archibald Blair's Storehouse). 
9 2 

Display window of the Wigmaker's Shop. 

Shop of Elknmih Deatie, coachrnaker, an emi- 
grant liom Ireland, who advertised in 1767 the 
making of "ironwork of every kind relative to 
the coadnnaking trade." 

Deanc was also a skilled wheelwright, who repaired pleasure carriages "in the best manner." 


Before the restoration of the 
town, all stores, legal offices, 
garages, and other business 
properties were scattered in 
hapha/ard fashion up and 
down Duke of Gloucester 

With a new town plan, the 
architects restricted most busi- 
ness buildings to the western 
end of the main street, and 
located them in such a way as 
to interfere as little as possible 
with the restoration of the 
town. The future growth of 
the town was kept in mind, 
with the thought that such 
growth could take place later- 
ally along the side streets. 

Above, view of the shopping district, showing at the left the A & P Building 
designed in the style of Virginia Tidewater architecture. 

Belozv, a section across the western end of Duke of Gloucester Street showing 
the Wren Building beyond, on the axis of the street, and the stores and shops of 
the business district at either side. The shops are set back at certain points to 
such an extent that the combined width of the sidewalks flanking the street is 
nearly double the width of the street. 


The plan of the shop- 
ping aiea (right) shows 
the generous width of 
the main si i eel and the 
flanking sidewalks, and 
the passageways connect- 
ing the latter with the 
inner block parking 
spaces at the rear ol 
(lie business buildings. 

i i. 

B O U N D A U V 


I HljlltV .H.V 1 

' - '\ I.' 


A spacious and shaded shopping distiicl icscinbliiig. somewhat. the 
ol .1 colonial \illagc sc|ii.iic'. 

Shops ai c- not cnmck'd, shoulder to shouldrr in a sli.iight urn. hut 
au- iiii'gulailx pl.iccd, with passages betucc-u cciiain ol llu- hiiildings 
to a shadc-d |uiking aica at ihc- UMI. Adjoining CMC h ol the 1 l\\o paik- 
ing aic'as llic-ic is a public g.nagc ir llic 1 coinenic'iicc 1 ol cuslonu'is. 

IVdc' acc-c'ss to the' stoies is 1mm the 1 In ic k pa\fd u.dks on the 
main stun. Shoppris ( oining l>\ c.n (.111 p.nk in llic ait'.i pioxidcd 
loi that piu pose and c-ntci the stoics dim tl\ lioni the leai. 

Hie building exteiiors, while not replicas ol eighteenth century 
proiot\pes, do (onlonii in theii an hitc-c tine to the- building manner 
ol 1 ideuatei X'ngiiii.i in die eighteenth ceiitiuy. 



Colonial \Villiamsbnrg: Its Buildings and Gardens is 
based upon early histoiical works on Virginia, together 
with lesearches in the field of American architecture over 
a peiiod oi years. Sources ol information and iccom- 
mended authorities lor extended reading are listed in 
the following notes. Footnotes to quotations in the text 
have been omitted for ease in reading. Few attempts have 
been previously made to assemble a listing ol the scattered 
literature on the pie/sen at ion and restoration of old 
buildings. The titles on this subject collected here will 
assist, il is believed, in the formulation ol an improved 
and uniloim restoration practice, with benefits Irom the 
extensive experience ol other countries. 


Early writeis on Virginia make scant mention of archi- 
tecture, but they do supply a detailed picture of the his- 
torical background and lile in the colon). Among the 
works of that time may be cited Robert Bevciley, The 
History and Present State of Virginia (London, 1705; 
Chapel Hill, 19.]$); Hugh Jones, Tlie Present State of 
Virginia (London, 1724); and Journal ^ Letters of Pliilip 
Vickers Fithiaii, i^j-ijjj: A Plantation Tutor of the 
Old Dominion, Hunter 1), Farish, eel. (Williamsburg, 
19.13). A secondary work by Philip Alexander Bruce, The 
Economic History of }'irginia in the Seventeenth Century 
(2 vok, N.Y., 1895) is most helpful on the economic lile 
of the opening years of Virginia coloni/ation. T. |. 
Wertenbaker, The Old Soulh; The Founding of Ameri- 
can Civilization (N.Y., 19.) 2), gives an interesting and 
humani/ed account of Virginia history including exten- 
sive references to its early architecture and crafts. Some of 
the statements ol L)on Gardiner Tyler, Williamsbnrg, 
the Old Colonial Capital (Richmond, 1907), have since 
required revision, but the book should be read for the 
picture it gives of pre-restoration Williamsbing. Indis- 
pensable is Rutherfoord Goodwin's A Brief d" True 
Report Concerning Williamsburg in Virginia (Williams- 
burg, igjo). The author has gathered together most of 
the pertinent documentary references to the town. The 
book summarizes facts related to the town's restoration 
and offers its own account of \VilIiamsburg history. 

Topics on Virginia history, personalities, trades, and 
materials can be traced to Virginia maga/ines and legis- 

lative sources with the aid of Karl G. Swcm's invaluable 
1'irginia Historical Index (2 vols., Roanoke, 1931-36). 
The lich store ol material concerning eighteenth-century 
Williamsbing and Virginia contained in the Virginia 
Gazelle has now been made conveniently available by the 
Institute ol Early American History and Gultuie, which 
has prepared a detailed index for the years 1736-80. The 
files of the Departments of Research and of Architecture 
ol Colonial \Villiamsbmg oiler compiled information on 
house histoiies, materials, building practices, and per- 
sonalities ol eighteen! h-(entuiy Tidewater Virginia, 


Williamsburg architects e and guldens must be studied 
in relation to the region, also as a part of a development 
in America. R. A. Lancaster, Historic Virginia Homes and 
CJnuches (Philadelphia, 1915), is one of the better works 
for illustrations of notable plantation houses and gardens. 
Fiske Kiniball, Domestic Architecture of the American 
Colonies and of the Ea)ly Republic (N.V., 1927), is the 
most reliable guide for general study of early American 
architecture. The Mansions of Virginia by Thomas T. 
Waterman (Chapel Hill, 19)5) is a well-illustrated work 
that discusses the Palace and many of the lesser dwellings 
of Williamsburg. The first illustrated discussion of the 
lestoration of Colonial Williamsburg appealed in The 
Architectural Record, LXXVIII, 356-458, December, 
1935; also LXXXII, 66-77, October, 1937. Illustrations in 
The Record are by the photographer, F. S. Lincoln. 
Samuel Chamberlain, Behold Williamsburg: A Pictorial 
Tour of Virginia's Colonial Capital (N.V., H).|7) is com- 
prehensive and has informative captions. See also Mary 
Fiances Goodwin, "Three Eighteenth Century Gardens," 
Virginia Quaitaly Review, X, 218-33, April, 193); a type- 
script of Joseph PrentiY Garden Book, March lyS^-Feb- 
ruaiy 1788, in the Library of Colonial Williamsburg: 
S. W. Fletcher, A History of Fruit (trowing in Virginia 
(Staumon, 1932); Edith Tunis Sale, Interiors of Virginia 
Houses of Colonial Times (Richmond, 1927); Gulden* of 
Colony and State, Alice G. B. Lockwood, ed., Garden 
(Jub of America publication, Vol. II (N.Y., 1931-34); 
Historic Gardens of Virginia (Richmond, 1923), compiled 
by the James River Garden Club, Edith T. Sale, ed.; E. 
M. Betts, Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book (Philadelphia, 



1944); and The Gardens of Williamsburg, a monograph 
by Alden Hopkins, Resident Landscape Architect of 
Colonial Williamsburg (Williamsburg, 1949). 

The Historic American Buildings Survey (in the charge 
of the Library of Congress) has undertaken the creation 
of a* permanent graphic record of the existing remains of 
early dwellings in America. This has become a notable 
and extensive source of photographic illustration of early 
buildings, as well as for measured drawings of many ex- 


There are several works that deal with the manner in 
which old buildings should be preserved or restored. J. 
Thomas Schneider prepared a comprehensive mimeo- 
graphed report in 19^5 for the Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., titled Report to the Secretary of the 
Interior on Preservation, Restoration and Reconstruc- 
tion of Historic Sites and Buildings. The purposes and 
methods of preservation are therein outlined, including 
a resume of the methods and experience of foreign coun- 
tries. The League of Nations (International Museum 

Office) issued a useful document in Paris in 193^ ^>.fch 
deals with principles of preservation, as applied to na- 
tional monuments, La Conservation des Monuments d'Art 
& d'Histoire. Reports of the Society for the Protection of 
Ancient Buildings (London, 1909-40) contain "principles 
of preservation and restoration." Paul Clemen, Kunst- 
schutz irn Kriege (Leip/ig, 1919), is a study of the preser- 
vation and restoration of churches and other art monu- 
ments injured by war. Attention is also called to three 
lesser works on restoration, originating in Great Britain. 
William Harvey, The Preservation of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral and other Famous Buildings, is termed "a text book 
on the new science of conservation" (London, 1925). 
Albert R. Powys, formerly Secretary of the British Society 
for Protection of Ancient Buildings, is author of an ex- 
cellent working manual on The Repair of Ancient Build- 
ings (London, 1939). There is more sentiment and less 
of experience in Walter Hindes Godfrey's Our Building 
Inheritance, Are We to Use or Lose It? (London, 1944). 
The National Council for Historic Sites arid Buildings, 
Washington, D.C., should be consulted for guidance on 
questions pertaining to methods of building preservation 
or restoration. 


The photographs in the book, in large part made 
expressly for it, are wilh a lew exceptions the work of 
three cameramen, Herbert Matter, Thomas Williams, 
and Richard Garrison. Mr. Matter took his shots in mid- 
winter and as the buds began to open in the early spring- 
lime. Mr. Williams, Stall Photographer for Colonial 
Williamsburg, was tireless in his ellorts to furnish for the 
book photographs necessary to the illustration of the text 
or depicting unusual aspects of the Williamsburg scene. 
Mr. Garrison's pictures were taken from time to lime 
during the last few years. 

The following abbreviations have been used in identi- 
fying the photographs and drawings listed in the credit 
index below: M Herbert Matter; W Thomas Wil- 
liams; G Richard Garrison; C.W. Colonial Williams- 
burg Files; L Lelt; R Right. Drawings not otherwise 
identified are by the authors. 

Front end paper, Keys W; door detail M; Frontis- 
piece M; v W; vi W; 2 Bryant and Gay, A Popular 
History of the United States', 3 W; 4 L. Paul Lacroix, 
Eighteenth Century, Its Institutions, Customs, and Cos- 
tumes: Fraiue 7700-77^9; 5 M; 7 M; 8 G; 9, L W; 
R ; \ s. Turberville, English Men and Manners in the 
Eighteenth Century, 10, Planter E. R. Billings, To- 
bacco, Its History, Varieties, Culture, Manufacture and 
Use-, 12 W; 13 W; 15 G; 16 Drawings by Thomas 
Mott Shaw; Photograph M; 17 W; 18, L Harvard 
University Collection; R Historic American Buildings 
Survey; 19 M; 20 W; 21 W; 22 W; 2$ W; 24 M; 
25 C.W.; 26, No. i M; No. 2 Diderot, Encyclopaedia', 
No. 3 W; No. 4 W; No. 5 W; Wallpaper Courtesy, 
Craft House; 27, Damask Courtesy, Craft House; No. 
(i M; 28, No. i C.W.; No. s M; No. 3 W; 29, Glass- 

ware C.W.; 30 M; 31 M; 32, Marblei/ed woodwoik 
W; Flask C.W.; 33, L C.W.; R M; 34 C.W.; 
35 ^' 37 (*l 39 W; 4 ^ 4 1 M 4 2 Authors; 
44 Courtesy, the Century Company; 45 Courtesy, 
Massachusetts Historical Society; 46, Palace W; Palace 
drawing Courtesy, Bodleian Library; Raleigh Interior 
W; Raleigh interior drawing Benson J. Lossing, The 
Pictorial Field-Hook of the Revolution', Wigmaker's 
Shop, L G; Wigmaker's Shop, R C.W.; 47, Powell- 
Hallam House, L and R C.W.; Grcenhow-Repiton 
House water color Artist unknown; Grcenhow-Repiton 
House C.W.; Scrivener House, L C.W,; Scrivener 
House, R W; 48, Frenchman's Map Cotntesy, College 
of William and Mary; 49 Courtesy, Bodleian Library; 
50, Plan Division of Architecture of C.W.; Photographs 
C.W.; 51 M; 52 W; 53, above G; below M; 54 
M; 55, 'above G; below M; 56 M; 57 W; 58 M; 
59 M; 60 W; 61, above W; below, L Cook Collec- 
tion; below, R C.W.; 62 W; 63, above W; below 
C.W.; 64 M; 65, abQve M; below W; 66 M; 67, 
above W; below, L W; below, R M; 68, above M; 
below W; 69 M; 70, above M; below W; 71 M: 
72 M; 73 G; 74, above G; below W; 75, above M; 
below W; 76, above G; below W; 77 M; 78, above, 
L and R G; other photographs W; 79, above M; 
below W; 80, above M; ' below C.W. ; 81 M; 82, 
above W; below, L Authors; below, R W; 83, L W; 
R_G ; 84, above G; below W; 85 W; 8fc M; 87 
W; 88, No. i M; No. 2 G; Nos. 3 and 4 W; 89, 
above M; below W; 90 M; 91, above G; below M; 
92, above and below, L W; above, R W; below, 
R M; 93, above W; below M; 94 G; Rear end 
paper, photographs W. 



Page nuwben \hown in bold face indicate 

Allcn-Byrtl House, 15, 80 
American Institute ol Architects, 44 
American Scenic and Historic Preserva- 
tion Society, 44 
Anderson, James, House, 83 

Kitchen, 18, 19 

Apollo Room. Sec Raleigh Tavern 
Apothecaries, 92 
Archaeological Museum, 61 
Archaeology, 40, 48, 49, 50 
Architects, 13, 21, 22, 23, 26 

advisory, 48 

for Colonial Williamsburg, 10, 45, 48, 49 
Architecture, books on, 14, 15, 22, 23, 28 

interior, 48 

Virginia, i, 2, 10, 14, 18 

Williamsburg, i, 3, to, 11-23 
"Arlington," 39 

Association lor the Preservation of Vir- 
ginia Antiquities, 43 
Athawes, Samuel, 26 
Atlantic & Pacific store, 94 
Ayscough, Christopher, 91 

House, 91 

"BACON'S CAS ILK," i, 20, 76 

Barber and Wigmaker's Shop, 4, 5, 92 

Barrel organ, 32 

Bartram, John, 39, jo 

Bed furniture, 20', 58 

Berkeley, Norborne. See Botetourt, Lord 

Governor [William J, 14 
"Berkeley," i 
Betty lamps, 34 
Bcverley, Robert, 26 
Bibles, 32 

Blacksmiths, 2, 90, 93 
Blair, Archibald, Outbuildings, 79 
Storehouse, 46, 92 

Rev. James, 6, 8 

John, House, 17, 28, 76, 77 

Kitchen, 78 

Blinds, Venetian, 26, 27 
Bodleian Library, 42, 45 

copperplate, 42, 45, 46, 49 
Books, on architecture, 14, 15, 22, 23, 28 

Boot and Shoemaker's Shop, 92 
Boston, 3, ic), 43 

Botetourt, Norborne Berkeley, Baron do, 
8, 26, 27, 53 

statue of, 88, 89 

stove, 27 

Boxwood, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 81 
Bracken, John, House, 13, 14, 72 
"Brandon," i 
Brick House Tavern, 83 
Bricklayers, i, 21 
Bricks, i, 14, i(>i7, 18, 20, 28, 3}, 49, 50 

as ballast, 17 

bond, 16 

making of, 16-17 

size of, 17 
Brodie, M., 91 
Brown, Fleming, 56 
Bruce, [Philip A.], 14 
Brush- Ever arc! House, 25, 40 
Biuton Parish Church, vi, 3, 8, 9, 10, 22, 

43, 45, 60, 61 
Bryan House, Garden, 40, 42 

Kitchen, 78 
Buckland, William, 21 
Buckttout, B., cjo 

Builders, i, 18, 20, 21, 22. See also Archi- 
tects; Overseers; "Undertakers" 
The Bnilden Dictionary, 28, 43 
Builders' handbooks, 14, 15, 22, 23, 28 
Building materials, i, 14, 15-17, 38. See 

also Bricks; Marble; Stone 
Burgesses, (i, 9, 10. Sec also Capitol, House 

of Burgesses 
Burnaby, Andrew, 1 1 
Burying ground, 42 
Business area, 94-95 
Byrd, William, 28, 34, 80 

House. See Allcn-B)id House 

CAIUNLTMAKKRS, 25, 31, 38, 90, 91 

shop, 90, 91 
Cabins, 18 

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 31 
Campbell, Mrs. Chrisfianna, 83 
Candelabra, 34 
Candles, 4, 18, 33, 3^ 
Candlesticks, 24, 30, 31, 33, 34, 53, 58, 59 
Canton, China, 34 

Capitals, of Virginia, 3 

Capitol, i, 3, 9, ii, 13, 16, 18, 23, 25, 26, 

2 9' 43- 45> 49 5 1 ' 6 7 7' 8 9- 9 

act tor building, 20 

Bodleian copperplate of, 49 

Conference Room, 31, 67 

Council Chamber, 26, 29, 32 

cupola, 20, 21, 69 

flag, 26, 69 

furnishings, 30, 31, 34 

General Court, 20, 26, 68 

House of Burgesses, 26, 27, 34, 68 

rooms in, 25-26, 68 

wall around, 18 
Capitol Landing, 4 
Carolina, 8 
Carpenters, i, 20, 21, 27, 90 

tools for, 23 
Carpets, 26, 29 
Carter, Robert, 2, 8,j 
Cartcr-Saunders House, 15, 27, 84 
"Carter's Grove," i, 17 
Gary, Henry, 18, 20, 21 
Catalpa trees, 52 
Cattle, 4 

Caulton, Richard, 90 
Chairs, 25, 26, 34 
Chandeliers, 34, 53, 54, 67, 68 
Charleston, 1 1 

Chimneys, i, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 75 
China, 34 

Chinese influence, 26, 27, 53 82 
Chowning's Tavern, ii, 26, 27, 85 
Christ Church, Philadelphia, 43 
Churches, i, 18. See aho Bruton Parish 


Clocks, 20, 21, 66 
Coaches, 4 
Coachmakers, 84, 90, 93 

shop, 93 

Cogar, James L., 48 
Coke, John, 82 
Coke-Garrctt House, 82 
Cole. See Taliaferro-Cole House 
Colcman. See Waters-Coleman House 
Collinson, Peter, 39, 40 
Colors, paint, 29, 31, 32 
Comedians, company of, 10 
Complete Body of Architecture, 14 
Continental Congress, 65 



Cooking, 33, 34 

utensils, 7 
Coopers' shops, 2 
Council, 9, 68. See also Capitol, Council 


Court House of 1770, 61 
Crafts, 4, 6, 90, 91, 92 
Craftsmen's tools, 23, 90, 91 
Craig, Alexander, House, 22 
Cupolas, 20, 21, 69 
Curator, 48 
Curtains, bed, 26, 27, 58 

window, 26, 27, 54 
Custis, John, 39, 40 

Martha Dandridge, 39 

Kitchen, 40 
Custis-Maupin Garden, 37 

DADO, 25, 26 
Damask, 26, 27 
Dancing, 2, 4 
Deanc, Elkanah, 84 

House, 84 

Shop, 93 

Declaration of Independence. 57 
Diderot, 27 

Dinwiddie, Robert, 10 
Dixon. Sea Pitt-Dixon House 
Doors, 13, 20, 23 
Drexel, Anthony, 63 
Dublin, 84 
Duke of Gloucester Street, 6, 11, 13, 36, 

44. 5 2 ' 8 7- 95 

Dumnore, John Murray, Earl of, 8, 53, 62 
Dyes, 38-39 

ENGLAND, i, 2, 3, 4, 10, 14, 17, 18, 25, 2vS, 

29- 33- 37> 39 42, 89 

Epergne, 33 

Estave, Mr., 6 

Evelyn, John, 13. 14 

Everard. Sec Brush-Everard House 

Evington, Maurice, 23 

Exhibition Buildings, 34. See also Capi- 
tol; Governor's Palace; Ludwell-Para- 
disc House; Magazine and Guard 
House; Public Gaol; Raleigh Tavern; 
Wythe House 


Fairs, 4 

Eal mouth, 29 

Fauquier, Francis, 8 

Fences, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 87 

Firebacks, 33-34 

Fire irons, 32 

Fireplaces, 14, 15, 23, 26, 27, 28, 33 

Fireworks, 52 

Fithian, Philip, 2, 34 

Fletcher, S. W., 38 

Floor cloths, 2(i, 29 

Floors, 29 

Folk art, 63 
Franklin, Benjamin, 6 
Frederic ksburg, 18, 28 
Frenchman's Map, 40, 48 
Fruit Trees, 37, 40, 42 
Furnishings, 4, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 
34> 4 8 53- 54. 55- 5&> 59- 6 4. > 6? 

GAIT, DR. D. D., 43 

Elizabeth, 43 

James, Cottage, 37 
Gardeners, 40, 91 
Gardens, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 

Custis-Maupin, 37 

Governor's Palace, 41, 42, 52 

Prentis House, 36 
Garrctt. Sec Coke-GarreU House 
Gate posts, 39 
Gates, 18, 36 
Geddy, James, 4 
General Assembly, 21, 32, $(> 
General Court, 20. See also Capitol 
Gibbs, James, 23 
Gilding, 26 
Gilt leather, 26, 27 
Glass, window, 27 
Glasses, 29 
Glazing, 26 
Goldsmiths, 4, 82 
Gooch, William, 6 
Goodwin, Rev. Dr. W. A. R., 45 
Governor's Palace, i, 3, 4, 8, 13, 14, 

23. 25, 2 9> 45' 4 6 ' 4 8 > 5*> 5 (i 8 4 

act to build, 21 

Ballroom, 26, 34, 42 

Bodleian copperplate, 46 

cupola, 20 

foundations, 50 

furnishings, 34, 53, 54, 55 

gardener, 91 

gardens, 11, 36, 40, 41, 42, 52 

Jefferson's plan for, 22, 45 

Kitchen, 7 

lighting, 34 

Little Dining Room, 55 

mantels, 55 

Maze and Mount, 42 

outbuildings, 7, 42, 51 

Parlor, 54, 55 

Supper Room, 26, 53 

wallpaper in, 26-27 
"Green Spring," 14, 42, (13 
Greenhow-Repiton House, 47 
Groomc, Samuel, 18 
Guard House, 62 
(inns, 4 
Gunsmiths, 90 


Hairdress, 4 

Hairdressers, 90. See also Wigmakers 



Halfpenny, William, 23 

Hallam, Lewis, 9. See also Powell-ftallam 


Ham, recipe for cooking, 34 
Hampton Court, 42 

Handbooks, for builders, 14, 15, 22, 23, 28 
Handel, 8 

Hanover Court House, 18 
Harpsichords, 32 
Harrison, Benjamin, 6 
Harvard College, 6, 89 
Harwood, Humphrey, 28 
If edges, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 
Henry, Patrick, 65 

Historic American Buildings Survey, 44 
History of Fruit Growing in Virginia, 38 
History of the first Discovery and Settle- 
ment of Virginia, 6 
Holly, 37, 39, 42 
Horse races, 4 
Horses, 4 

House ol Burgesses. See Burgesses; Capitol 
Household utensils, 7 
Houses, Virginia, 1-2, 18 
Houses, Williamsburg, 11, 13, 14, 15, iG, 
28, 32 

Allen-Byrd House, 15, 80 

Anderson, James, House, 19, 83 

Ayscough House, 91 

Blair, Archibald, Outbuildings, 79 

Storehouse, 46, 92 
John, f louse, 17, 28, 76, 77, 78 

Bracken, John, House, 13, 14, 72 

Brick House Tavern, 83 

Brush-Evcrard House, 25, 40 

Bryan House, 40, 42, 78 

Capitol. See Capitol 

Carter-Saunders House, 15, 27, 84 

Chowning's Tavern, 26, 27, 85 

Cokc-Garrett House, 82 

Craig, Alexander, House, 22 

Custis-Maupin House. 37 

Deane, Elkanah, House, 84 

Gait, James, Cottage, 37 

Governor's Palace. See Governor's Pal- 

Greenhow-Repiton House, 47 

Guard House, 62 

Jail. See Public Gaol 

(ones, Orlando, House, 76 

Kerr House, 78 

Lightfoot House, 14, 74 

Ludwell-Paradisc House, 63, 78, 79 

Magazine, 44, 62 

Market Square Tavern, 26, 27 

Moody House, 74, 75 

Orr, Captain, Dwelling, 13 

Orrell House, 14, 74 

Pitt-Dixon House, 73 

Plans of, 13, 14, 15, 21 

Powcll-Hallam House, 47, 74 



Houses, Williamsburg Continued 
Prentis House, 36 
President's House, 15, 88, 89 
Public Gaol, 70, 71 
Public Records Office, 16, 17 
Quarter, 15 

Raleigh Tavern. See Raleigh Tavern 
Randolph, Peyton, House, 25, 26, 27, 

28, 85 

Scrivener House, 47 
Seniple House, 82 
Stith, Mary, Forge, 80 
Tayloe, John, House, 14 
Theater, 9, 10, 76, 77 
Travis House, 74, 75 
Tucker, St. George, House, 12, 81, 87 
Watcrs-Colemaii House, 74, 75 
Wren Building, i, 3, 8, 88, 89, 94 
Wythc House, 15, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 40, 

57> 58. 59. 79 

See also Kitchens; Shops 
Huntington Library, 48 
Hurricane shade, 34 

Independence Hall, 43 
India, 38 
Indians, i, 3, 89 
Inkwells, 30, 32 
Insurance policies, 44 
Ireland, 33, 34, 93 

'i-LiN, MARTHA, 29 
Jail. See Public Gaol 
James River, i, 2, 13 
Jamestown, i, 3, 11, 13, 14 
Jefferson, Thomas, (i, 8, if>, 21, 22, 23, 57, 


plans by, 22, 45, 48 
Jefferson, Thomas, Foundation, 44 
Jcffricss, 25 
Jewelry, 4 
Jones, Hugh, 8, 13 

Orlando, House, 76 

Kcndrcw, A. E., 45 
Kerr Kitchen, 78 
Kidd, Joseph, 26, 90 
Kimhall, Fiskc, 11, 44 
Kings and Queens (game) , 53 
Kitchen utensils, 7, 33 
Kitchens, 33, 40, 42, 78 

Anderson, James, Kitchen, 19 

Blair, John, Kitchen, 78 

Bryan Kitchen, 78 

Custis Kitchen, 40 

Governor's Palace Kitchen, 7 

Kerr Kitchen, 78 

Ludwell-Paradisc Kitchen, 78 

Kitchens Continued 
Taliafcrro-Cole Kitchen, 78 
Tucker, St. George, Kitchen, 12 

Knight, Madame, 16 


Landscape architects, 45 

Langlcy, Batty, 23 

Lanterns, 7, 66 

Leather, gilt, 26, 27 

Lee, Robert F., 3, 44 

Lee, Robert E., Memorial Foundation, 4} 

Leedstown, 25 

Levingston, William, 9 

Lexington, Battle of, 62 

Libraries, 23 

Lightfoot House, 14, 74 

Lighting, 34. See also Candelabra; Can- 
dles; Candlesticks; Chandeliers; Lan- 

London, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 18, 22, 25, 29, 39, 

55 9 

London Post Boy, 8 
Looking glasses, 32 
Lots, Williamsburg, 11, 13, 3(3 
Ludweil, Philip, II, 63 
Ludwell-Paradisc House, 63 

Coach House, 79 

Kitchen, 78 

MAGAZINE, 44, 62 

Mantelpieces, 26, 27, 28, 55 

Maps, 40, 42, 44, 48 

Marble, 28 

Marbleized wood, 32 

Market Square Tavern, 26, 27 

Marl, 28, 49 

Marshall, John, 6 

Maryland, 8, 39 

Mason, George, 65 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 48 

Maupin. See Custis-Muupin House 

Mazes, 42 

The Merchant of Venice, 9, 10 

Methodists, 9 

Middle Plantation, i, 3, 9, 11, 18 

Middlesex County, 18 

Mills, i 

paper, 6 

Minetree, David, 18 
Minor, Dabney, 31 
Monroe, James, 6 
"Montitello," 44 
Moody House, 74, 7*J 
Moorchead, S. P., 45 
Morris, James, 18 

Robert, 23 

"Mount Vcrnon," 43 
Mount Vcrnon Ladies' Association, 43 
Mulberry trees, 4, 6, 37-38 
Murray, John. See Dunmore, Lord 
Music, 3, 8, 32 


National Council for the Preservation of 

Historic Shrines, 44 
National Park Service, 44 
New England, 14 
New Kent County, 17, 18 
New York, 3, 16, 33 
Newspapers. See Virginia Gazette 
Nicholson, Francis, n, 13, 38, 87 
"Nomini Hall," 2, 34, 84 
Norfolk, 48 . 
North Carolina, 39, 40 
Norton, John. & Sons, 29 
Notes on Virginia, 16 

Orr, Captain, Dwelling, 13 
Orrell House, 14, 74 
Outbuildings, 17 

Plantation, i, 2 

Williamsburg, 12, 19, 35-36, 40, 42, 51, 

78. 79 

Overseers, 20, 21 

Oxford, 42, 45 


Paint colors, 14, 26, 29, 31, 32, 72 

'aiming of houses, 29-32 

'aintings, 33 

'alace. See Governor's Palace 

*ala(.e Green, 9, 13 

> apcr mill, 6 
Pa*radise, Lucy Ludweil, 63. See ahu 

Ludwell-Paradisc House 
Parks, William, 6 
Parliament, 10, 17 
Pennsylvania, 8, 39 
Pens, quill, 30, 32 
Perry, Shaw and Hepburn, 45 
Philadelphia, vi, 3. n, 39, 43 
Pictures, 32, 33 
Pillory, 70 

Pitt, George, Shop, 92 
Pitt-Dixon House, 73 
Plans, for houses, 13, 14, 15, 21 
Plantations, houses on, 1-2, 18 
Plants, 36-38, 39, 40 
Playhouses, 9, 10 
Plays, 9, 10 

Poems by a Gentleman of Vhginia, 
The Poor Planters Physidan, 6 
Portland stone, 28 
Portrait painters, 33 

Powder maga/incs, 18. See aho Maga/ine 
Powell-Hallam House, 47, 74 
Pratt, Matthew, 33 
Prentis House, 36 
The Present State of Virginia, 13 
President's House, 15, 88, 89 
Primatt, Stephen, 35 
Princess Anne County, 16 



Printing office, 6 

Printers, 6 

Prints, copperplate, 25 

Privies, 40 

Public Gaol, 70, 71 

Public Records Office, 16, 17 

Purbeck stone, 28, 29, 50 

"Quickset" hedges, 39 
Quill pens, 30, 32 

RALEIGH TAVK.RN, 3, 4, 27, 34, 65, 87 

Apollo Room, 46, 65 

Dining Room, 24 

furnishings, 34 

Ladies Withdrawing Room, 27 

stairway, 66 

Taproom, 64 
Randolph, Mrs. Betty, 28 

Edmund, 6 

Sir John, 39 

Peyton, 28, 65, 85 

House, 25, 26, 27, 28, 85 
Rathell, Catherine, 91 
Repiton. See Grcenhow-Repiton House 
Research Department, 48 
Restoration, principles of, 48-50 
Richmond, 3, 31 
Rochambeau, General, 85 
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 45 

Mrs. John D., Jr., 63 
Rolfc, John, i 
Roofs, 13, 14, 20, 23, 65 
"Roscwell," 14 
Rugs, 29 


St. Luke's Church, i 

St. Peter's Church, 17, 18 

Saunders. See Carter-Saunders House 

Sautier Plans, 40, 42 

Schuylkill, 39 

Scrivener House, 47 

Semple House, 82 

Shaw, Thomas Mott, 16 

Shingles, 14, 72 

"Shirley," i, 14 

Shoemaker's Shop, 92 

Shoes, 4 

Shops, Williatnsburg. 4, 5, 83, 91, 92, 93, 


Barber and Wigmaker's Shop, 4, 5, 92 

Blacksmith's Shop, 93 

Boot and Shoemaker's Shop, 92 

Cabinetmaker's Shop, 91 

Deane Shop, 93 

Pitt, George, Shop, 92 

Shoemaker's Shop, 92 

Wigmaker's Shop, 4, 5, 92 
Shrubs, 36-38, 39, 40, 42 
Shurcliff, Arthur A., 45 

Shutters, 27 

Silk industry, 6 

Smith, John, 32, 38 

Smithfield, i 

Snuff boxes, 32 

Society for the Advancement of Useful 

Knowledge, 8 
Sowers, "Babe," 16 
Speaker's chair, 34 
Spinets, 32 

Spotswoocl, Alexander, 4, 9. 21, 52 
Stairways, 15, 66, 82 
Stamp Act, vi, 4 
Steeples, 22 
Stith, Mary, Forge, 80 

William, ti, 32 
Stocks, 70 

Stone, imported, 28 
Stoves, 27 

Botetourt, 27 
"Stratford," i, 3, 44 
Surry County, i 
Swan, Abraham, 23 


Taliaferro, Richard, 21, 57 

Taliaferro-Colc Kitchen, 78 

Tayloe, John, House, 14 

Theaters, 8, 9, 10, 76, 77 

Thoreau, 25 

Tobacco, i, 2 

Todd House, 18 

Tools, carpenters', 23 

craftsmen's, 90, 91 
Trades, in Williatnsburg, 4. C. See also 

Crafts: Shops 
The Tragedy of Cato, 9 
Travis House, 74, 75 
Trees, 36-38, 39, 40, 42, 49, 52 
"Tuckahoe," i 
Tucker, St. George, 81 

House, 81, 87 

Kitchen, 12 
Tyler, John, 6 
Typographia, 6 

Upholsterers, 26, 90 


Victoria and Albert Museum, 31 

Virginia. See. Architecture, Virginia; 

Houses; Plantations 
Virginia fences, 42 
Virginia Gazette, 4, 6, 9, 22, 23, 26, 27, 33, 

50, 89, 90 
Vitruvius, 23 
Vobc, Mrs., 33 

WAINSCOTING, 25, 26, 32 
Walks, garden, 36, 40, 42 
Wallpaper, 26, 27 

Wall treatment, 25-27 
Walls, surrounding, 18, 36 
Walter, Thomas Ustick, 43 
Ware, Isaac, 14, 23 
Warner's Almanack, 32 
Washington, George, 9, 10, 39, 65. N v s 

John Augustine, 43 

Martha, 39 
Washington, D.C., 43 
Waters-Colcman House, 74, 75 
Webb, Philip, 49 
West, Mr., 33 

Westmoreland County, 2, 44 
"Westover," i, 14, 34 
Wheelwrights, 93 
Whitewash, 31 
Whitefield, Rev. George, 9 
The Whole Body of the Laws of Virginia, 

Wigmakcr, 5 

shop of, 4, 5, 92 
William III, 3 

William and Mary College, i, 3, 6, 8, <), 
n, 13, 29, 45, 48, 81, 88, 89 

Jefferson's plan for, 22 

President's House, 15, 88 

Wren Building, i, 3, 8, 88, 89, 94 
Williainsburg, i, 3, 4, 6, 8 

act directing building, 1 1 

architecture in. 3, 10, 1 1-23. See nho 
Houses, Williainsburg 

business district, 94-95 

drawing of, 44 

gardens in, 35-42, 45 

houses in. See Houses, Willi.tmslmrg 

lots in, n, 13, 36 

manufactures in, 4 

population, 3 

"Public k Times," 3-4 

restoration of, 43-95 

shopping district, 94-95 

shops ol. See Shops 

streets, 6, 11, 13, 36, 44, 52. 87, 94 

theaters, 8, 9, 10 

trades in, 4, 6. See also Crafts; Shops 
Window curtains, 26 
Windows, 13, 20, 22, 23, 49, 50 

casement, 27 

sash, 27 

Wren, Sir Christopher, 8, 13 
Wren Building. See William and Maty 

Wythe, George, 6, 23, 34, 57, 65 

House, 15, 2$, 27, 28, 33, 34. 40. 57, 

58' 59 
Outbuildings, 79 

YEW, 37, 39, 40 
York County, 83, 90 
York River, i, 13, 29 
Yorktown, 13